Drinking Laws For Passengers While Riding in a Limousine

It is unlawful or illegal for any passengers riding in a limousine to consume alcoholic beverages in the Ontario, Canada area. The same goes for Calgary, Canada. This bylaw was passed in February 2007 although many people did not know of its existence until recently because the bylaw has of late come up for review.

This bylaw is also in the city of Calgary, Canada and they are not too happy about it. Some companies have even filed formal complaints with the city stating that these laws do not encourage responsible choices against drinking and driving. And that is one of the main reasons people choose to take a limousine so they do not have to drink and drive. The reasons for celebration have all but been taken away. Not that everyone drinks when they ride in the limousine, but a lot of people do rent limousines for a celebration of some sort including weddings and going out with their friends to a special event or a ballgame or hockey game.

Going to and from an event, as a passenger in a limousine, you may have alcoholic beverages with you in unopened containers; however no one is allowed to be drinking them in the back of the limousine in Calgary or Ontario, Canada. The laws are different in various areas of Canada and when you cross down the border into the United States, they are different in various states as well.

The law basically defeats the purpose for going out for a celebration in limousine and that's what has many of the limousine companies and passengers up in arms about. If you can not drink while someone else is driving then you might as well go in your own car and have someone else drive although, this is also illegal to be drinking in the car while someone else is driving. This brings up the law in the states where there is a partition between the driver and the people drinking alcoholic beverage. In some states this is considered legal and Canadians think this should be legal as well.

Unless the driver has a special license, his or her passengers can not drink in the back of the limousine. This means if the driver of the limousine has a special license, his or her passengers may consume alcohol during their ride in the back of the limousine.

This special license is called an Ontario Liquor Delivery Service License and it comes from The Registrar of The Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario (AGCO). This special license allows the driver to have his or her passengers consume alcoholic beverages in the back of the limousine.

The AGCO collects data on a limousine company and then has a rigorous testing policy in place before it allows a limousine company to obtain an Ontario Liquor Delivery Service License in which the limousine company can therefore deliver liquor or have liquor in the limousine.

The drinking laws for passengers in Canada very from Providence to Providence so you need to be diligent and check with your driver or the limousine company before you pop the cork on any celebrations.

Pancreatic Cancer – Living From Diagnosis to Death – The Diary of a Cancer Patient's Daughter

One of the hardest things to do in life is to live once you've been told you are going to die. It's as if life speeds up after you receive knowledge that your days are ticking away on a finite clock that you have no control over. One important thing that I learned while experiencing the devastating affects of Pancreatic Cancer with my mother as she fought this distressing disease is that it is crucial to focus on the time that you have rather than on the time you do not have. To me this article is a condensed version of the Diary of Cancer Patient's Daughter as I explain what living with Pancreatic Cancer is like from diagnosis to death as I framed the picture of my mother's experience in my mind.

I hope and pray that you receive something out of these words birthed out of pain that will bring you peace and help you or your loved one with a Cancer diagnosis live a little longer and happier in spite of the sad reality you are facing. There are 7 D's in this Cancer Diary that can help you manage the physical and mental aspects of this awful disease. Remember that what you do not do in the Cancer Crisis is just as important as what you do.

Entry # 1: The Diagnosis:

My mother Joyce was 66 years old when she was diagnosed with Pancreatic Cancer during the summer of 2008. Though all Cancer is bad, Pancreatic Cancer is considered one of the worst because it is the most difficult to diagnose. The reason is that the symptoms mirror digestive problems as the disease hides in the depths of the digestive system. My mother had chronic pain in her stomach and though she went to the emergency room several times receiving numerous tests and ultra sounds the doctors kept telling her nothing was wrong with her and sent her home every time. Initially they thought it was a problem with her gal bladder which is a common misdiagnoses in the case of Pancreatic Cancer.

Her Father Boyce whom she was named after died of Pancreatic Cancer 20 years earlier, but the chance that she could have that very same thing never occurred to her or anyone else in our family. If Cancer runs in your family, especially Pancreatic Cancer, I would advise you to have regular screenings for this disease as early diagnosis is a key to survival. One of the most deadly things about Pancreatic Cancer is that because it is so hard to diagnose most patients do not receive their diagnosis until they are already in Stage 4 of the Cancer when there is practically no hope.

The symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer include: abdominal pain and pressure, jaundice, nausea, loss of appetite, depression, weight loss and weakness. My mother had all symptoms except for jaundice. Just because a person is missing a common symptom does not mean they do not have Pancreatic Cancer. The most common procedures used to diagnosis this brutal disease are: Ultrasonography, CT Scanning, Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancretography, Endoscopic Ultrasound, MRI, and Cholangiogram Percutaneous Transhepatic. I'm pretty sure my mother had all of these tests done and it can be very draining to endure such experiences, however it is vital in obtaining a diagnosis. The results of her diagnosis showed that there was a tumor on her pancreas blocking the flow of bile from her liver, as well as, the flow of enzymes from her pancreas. In her case the tumor was wrapped around a blood vessel and surgery to remove the tumor was not really an option. Very few surgeons in the country would have been able to successfully perform the surgery and her chances of survival would have been slim to none. Even if she had of had the surgery her quality of life following it was questionable. This surgery is commonly known as the Whipple Operation and removes a large part of the pancreas, the duodenum and a portion of the bile duct

What do you do in this situation? You make the choice to live the best life in the time that you have which is undetermined and different for everyone. Suck every drop of joy out of life you can as quickly as possible. If we could turn back the clock and do it all over again the one thing we would do differently is have annual screenings for the disease conducted because had we done that my mother might still be alive today. What you do in time can determine the time you have on this earth.

Many people allow the hands of time to cover their eyes to what they do not want to see. Open your eyes today and if you have not been diagnosed with this disease begin to use preventative measures such as a healthy diet, exercise, and regular checkups with your doctor.

Entry # 2: Denial:

We were in such disbelief after receiving the diagnosis we failed to take immediate action locked in the paralysis of our new found reality. One thing Cancer does not give you is time. That big devil called denial must be dealt with. I can still hear my mother saying, "I can not have this … not me!" You must come to grips with what you have in order to get a grip on the situation. Sometimes I think of Cancer being more of an accident of health rather than a mistake of nature. All you can do with a mistake is wish that it never happened but accidents can be prevented. Maybe this is a little optimistic since Cancer tends to creep in like an unexpected thief to steal your most prized possessions. Even so, optimism is always stronger than pessimism and it merely means that our powerful spirits encased in a fragile frame of flesh chooses to live.

Even people with diseases such as drug addiction and alcoholism must come out of denial before they recover. I know Cancer survivors and they are the same people that came out of denial and dealt with the disease. You will never take action in regards to something you do not believe.

Entry # 3: Drugs:

We live in a pill popping nation where there is a drug for every situation. One of the main problems with drugs is that they mask symptoms but fail to provide a cure. Drugs do their best to cover up the Cancer until the victim is covered with earth in a coffin. I keep hearing rumors that there is a cure for Cancer but the medical and funeral industries are making too much money off of the disease to release the cure. I do not know if that is true but it sure makes sense.

Though drugs were diagnosed to help my mother one of the first things we did which is extremely important for Pancreatic Cancer patients was to have a stint put in. Stints were inserted into the tubes leading from her liver and pancreas to help them function and this helped her to live a better life. In some cases, depending on the size of the tumor, it is very difficult to insert stints but there are several alternative methods and procedures to accomplish the same effect. If you have a good doctor he will inform you of all options. If you have a doctor that does not tell you all the options; get another doctor.

My experience with a mother with Pancreatic Cancer perfected a hatred in me for Morphine which is the pain medication my mother was put on. Since the pain caused by the Cancer is so intense our options were limited and we wanted my mother to be able to live out her days as pain free as possible as I think anyone would. The Morphine altered her mind, changed her personality, and caused aggression and paranoia. The effects of the Morphine put the family in pain while relieving my mother's pain.

At times it was as if she was out of her mind and it nearly drove us out of ours. She no longer trusted the people that loved her and many times would forget what she was saying in the middle of a sentence. The family told her many things over and over again and she would not do them and always forgot what we told her. To me Morphine kills a person before they die. It kills their ability to convey the essence of who they truly are. There are alternatives for pain relief drugs but I do not know how much better they are since we only dealt with Morphine.

It amazes me how Patrick Swayze filmed a television series with Pancreatic Cancer refusing to take pain medications so he could concentrate on and accomplish his work. I remember hearing him speak about preparing hours in advance of his shoots to be mentally and physically prepared to accomplish every task in pain. I think drugs such as Morphine make a person die faster because it arrests their mind. In the movie the Matrix if you've ever seen it, Neo is doing the jump program with Morpheus and falls. When he comes out of it he is bleeding and makes a statement to the fact that he thought it was not real and Morpheus tells him that the mind makes it real and that the body can not live without the mind. If you are mentally incapacitated, how can you make a conscious decision to fight for your life?

A glimmer of hope came to us while dealing with the madness of the Morphine which is an alternative pain treatment that Cancer patients can receive that deals with injecting alcohol around certain nerves to block the feelings of pain. My mother had this procedure done but said that it did not work. To this day I do not know if the treatment really did not work or if by the time she had it she was

already addicted to the Morphine and the pain she felt were the pangs of withdraw.

Unfortunately Morphine was only one wave in the ocean of drugs we had to deal with. There were digestive enzymes that had to be taken prior to eating, beta blockers, heart medication, anxiety medication, insulin for the diabetes caused by the shut down of the pancreas, medication for indigestion, vitamins, blood thinners for blood clots and so many medications we had to make an Excel spreadsheet just to keep track of them.

One of the effects of the disease that had to be dealt with was extreme swelling of the abdomen and feet to the point where diuretics were prescribed, fluid draw procedures had to be performed by using a needle to draw the fluid from the abdomen and as for the feet; only house shoes could be worn. I found out that the swelling was caused by the Cancer mainly due to the body's reaction to the tumor and to the lack of protein in the blood disabling the bloods ability to hold fluid.

The things that a person goes through with Cancer are almost endless. Every part of the body is affected; especially the mind, the will, and the emotions. Based upon the experience I encountered with my mother a couple of other crises we had to press through was the C Diph infection causing chronic diarrhea causing contact isolation that is almost like quarantine to be implemented. My mother could barely eat and we had to put on hospital gowns and gloves to be in the room with her or even come in contact with her.

An episode we faced with internal bleeding caused by the rupturing of blood vessels was very traumatic and hospitalized my mother after she passed out from weakness with her eyes rolling back in her head due to the extreme blood loss. Blood was in her bowels and blood transfusions had to be issued in order to get her blood count back up to normal which is usually 14 and hers was almost half that. Had we not sought medical attention for her at that time she could have died. So that you can recognize this, the symptoms are usually extreme weakness and black loose bowels. I experienced the same thing when I was four years old and diagnosed with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.

We tried chemotherapy which is extremely hard on the body, killing the good cells along with the bad. Chemotherapy is like infusing your body with a poison in order to get rid of another poison. For some people it works but sadly to say in the cases of Pancreatic Cancer it is rarely effective. I am not a doctor and therefore give no medical recommendations as to how to treat Cancer of the Pancreas but in my own personal opinion and experience through observation I would say if possible, find a better way.

There are alternative treatments, natural remedies, and experimental treatments. A Cancer patient can seek studies that are being conducted for the type of Cancer they have and in many cases when they become a part of the study they can receive free or very low cost experimental treatments. One day one of these experimental treatments might be the answer. My mother used an experimental chemotherapy that was available but it was too hard on her heart. One of her smaller tumors did disappear but that was not enough to save her.

Chemotherapy can carry such side effects as nausea, vomiting, and decreased white blood cell counts. Historically, Chemotherapy has not been effective in the treatment of Pancreatic Cancer, but there are more up to date treatments that use an FDA approved agent called gemcitabine which has helped to shrink some tumors for Carcinoma of the pancreas.

At one point we went to see a naturalpathic doctor specializing in alternative Cancer treatments that knew of a treatment that had proved to be effective for Pancreatic Cancer. The name of the treatment is Intravenous – Lipoic Acid / Low-Dose Naltrexone Protocol. There are various articles and information on this treatment for you to research and intelligently consider.

Our problem with the treatment was that one of the drugs prescribed for it that could only be filled at a compound pharmacy blocks the affects of opiates and since my mother was on Morphine for pain a known opiate she plunged into a chronic pain episode that caused her to lose coherency from the pain and go to the emergency room where the only thing they could do to relieve her pain was to give her a drug strong enough to sedate her and completely knock her out. It was a tremendous setback in her treatment. The opiate blocking drug was supposed to be a very low dosage that should not have negatively affected her so if this particular treatment is chosen I would do extensive research and make ample preparations before trying it.

When you are personally dealing with Cancer or know someone close to you that is, you will find out quickly that everyone has a product to sell you that they claim has cured someone from Cancer. Maybe they have and maybe they have not. Again, I remember watching an interview with Barbara Walters and Patrick Swayze when he said something to the effect of, "If you had a miracle cure for Cancer you would be rich and everyone would know you so just shut up." We tried several products and ordered everything we thought could make a difference or be a cure. I'm going to share with you two things that you can buy on your own that we did not get a chance to try because we found out about them too late. I do not know it they work, but its worth a try as anything is when you or someone you love is dying.

You can search YouTube and find videos on the banking soda Cancer treatment and you can search the Internet to find articles that specifically discuss the use of asparagus to treat Cancer. There is so much more I could say about different treatments and drugs but instead of going on and on about this subject I will instead give you a few helpful hints.

Helpful Hint # 1: If you are strong enough to do it, aerobic exercise helps Chemotherapy patients by ridding the toxins in their system from Chemotherapy through sweat. I read an article once about a lady with Cancer that felt too sick to do aerobics when her coworkers kept inviting her to class because they did not know she had Cancer. She started the classes eventually and felt sick at first and then started feeling better. She sweated the toxins out and one year later was teaching the class Cancer Free.

Helpful Hint # 2: When a Cancer patient's veins are to the point where it is extremely difficult to draw blood or administer IV medication a Central Line which is a port for IV and medication inserted into the jugular vein by ultrasound can be good. I witnessed the pain of my mother as she was poked multiple times with attempts to draw blood and insert IV's. Save yourself this pain with a Central Line.

Helpful Hint # 3: Keep a positive attitude and laugh as often as possible. The Bible says that laughter doeth the heart good like a medicine. Sometimes simple laughter will do more for a Cancer patient than any drug. Laughter heals and it makes a person's time on this earth more enjoyable. Talk about funny memories from the past with family and friends and laugh, laugh, laugh! You deserve it! Mental support is important. Encourage, speak positive things, and most of all be there for the person that you know that has Cancer. Cancer and all the things a person goes through with it are scary. I coached my mom and encouraged her and told her she could make it when she did not think she could. Encouragement in love can add time to a Cancer patient's life. Ask lots of questions and gain as much knowledge as possible. If a drug or treatment you or a Cancer patient you know is on does not seem right; talk to the doctor about it because there is always an alternative.

Entry # 4: Disappointment:

Normally in life there are disappointments. When you already have a disappointing disease, disappointment can be magnified. What do you do when the Chemo does not work? How do you react when the miracle cure you found out about does not cure? How do you deal with setbacks that surface along the way? What you do is keep going, keep trying, and do not give up. It is important to express disappointment and acknowledge it as long as it does not take you captive. Just having the disease is disappointing, not to mention all of the obstacles encountered while dealing with the disease. Disappointment is not only experienced by the Cancer victim but by the family and friends that love that person so much.

I was working on my MBA when my mother was diagnosed with Cancer. Since she was already in Stage 4 of Cancer when she was diagnosed we found out shortly after the diagnosis that the Cancer had spread to her lungs and other areas of her body. I can remember the day I found out about that. I started crying at work and could not stop and had to leave the office. I know what it feels like to try and hold tears in and there is nothing you can do to keep them held in your eyes. I know what it is to cry until your stomach jerks in and out and snot comes out of your nose and you feel like throwing up. My mother was my best friend and because of that I am well acquainted with disappointment.

I always wondered how the people with these miracle stories that publish these books about overcoming Cancer did it. Their methods worked for them with no doubt but my mother was in such a bad state she could not even do most of the things these books said to do and that was so disappointing. I wished I could speak with these people personally just to ask them … HOW? How did you do it?

One of the greatest challenges faced was that my mother was a Minister and Pastor and she had a lot of people praying for her as she even believed for her own healing. Father Yah (God) is a healer but He does not always heal and there is always a question of why for those that are not healed. Dottie Olsteen the wife of the late Pastor John Olsteen of Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas now pastured by Joel Olsteen at one time had terminal Liver Cancer. Dottie gathered together the healing scriptures from the Bible and began to speak them over herself three times a day like a medicine prescription and was totally and completely healed.

Why her and not my mother? I do not know. Maybe Yah (the name for almighty God the Creator in Hebrew) was ready for my mom to come home with Him. All I can tell you is that disappoint can and will come in many forms. The best cure for disappointment is to overcome with an attitude of thankfulness, accepting that you do not know the reason for all things but you do know that there is a reason and a purpose for all things. Stay positive while keeping your mind and spirit open to whatever might happen. Disappointment comes when something other than what you expect or anticipate happens. With Cancer you have to be prepared for the success or failure of anything and everything. Be encouraged; you are stronger than disappointment. Do not let it catch you off guard but be prepared for it. Know that for every disappointment there is a triumph on the other side.

Entry # 5: Diet:

Anyone with Cancer should reconstruct their diet to contain the foods that fight against and can even cure Cancer. Eat and drink substances that are non-acidic, alkaline, and highly concentrated with antioxidants. Research to find Cancer healing foods.

One of the most important things to do is to drink a lot of water. Water is the source of life and the human body is mostly composed of water. There is an author that wrote a book called, "You Are not Sick You're Just Thirsty" talking about the importance of water and its affects on the body.

Diet is a rough subject with Pancreatic Cancer because you can know all the right things to eat and not be able to consume them. The affects of the disease on the digestive system makes it very hard to eat and drink. The patient may lose their appetite and even if they do have an appetite, once they eat it can make them feel sick. Pancreatic Cancer sabotages the digestive system.

One thing that helped us was some information we found on dill pickles that assists in the digestion of food. In many instances when someone with Pancreatic Cancer or other digestive problems eats a dill pickle with each meal it helps to counteract the digestive problems so they can eat in comfort and keep the food down for nutrition to the body.

There are also drugs available to enhance the appetite, but if dill pickles can also be eaten with every meal that should help greatly as well. Since Pancreatic Cancer patients have difficulties in eating and tend to lose a lot of weight, dietary supplements such as protein shakes are suggested which are ingested easier with the use of a straw. Peanut butter can be added to the shakes to increase the calorie content and nutritional value of the shake. Another suggestion is to eat very small meals all throughout the day. The Cancer patient may not feel like eating but in order to live they must FORCE themselves to eat. Lack of food and liquid can kill quicker.

Vitamin D fights Cancer and freshly juiced vegetable juices containing the juice from green leafy vegetables can be extremely helpful especially when drank right after juicing when vitamin content and living substance is at a high level. The external diet is also important which consists of Epson salt baths that help to heal and release toxins from the body.

We all know the saying, "You are what you eat." Eat what is alive and it will help you stay alive. The first 3 letters of the word diet is the word die. Do not let what you are eating kill you. Since Cancer patients many times have to give up foods they love in order to live, it is great if the family can conform to their diet in support of their dietary efforts. Some foods make Cancer grow like simple sugars. Cut the sugar out of your diet and use a natural alternative like Stevia to sweeten foods. Stevia is a naturally sweet leaf that is available in powder and liquid form to sweeten foods and use in recipes. I am a big Bible reader so I love that Stevia is a leaf because the Bible says that the leaves shall be used for the healing of the nations. Other well-known artificial sweeteners can actually be poisonous to the body so be careful with them and avoid them if possible.

Entry # 6: Death:

Even when you know someone is going to die, nothing really prepares you for the affects, effects, and real life reactions to that death. Everyone's experience is different, and I will share my personal experience with you hoping it will help you in some way. I can remember my mom looking at me one night and saying to me, "I'm dying!" I did not know what to say back because even though I knew she had Cancer and death seemed inevitable, I refused to accept the fact the she was actually going to die.

We took her to the hospital on a Thursday and the very next day they wanted to send her to hospice. Hospice is a great and awful place all at the same time. Great due to the care and support and painless exit for the patient from this world they provide. Awful because you know that it is the last place you will be with the one you love. Hospice facilities are very comfortable and they give you a chance to say goodbye even if you do not want to. No one does. Please know that you are not the only one going through this; neither are you the only one that has ever gone through this.

Counselors are provided, as well as, chaplains for spiritual support and prayer. You will receive a booklet explaining the death process which helps you know when death is near. During this process, give the Cancer patient a lot of love, comfort and support, and make sure you yourself get ample food and rest. Speak to your loved one while they are responsive and even after they are in a drug induced comma because they can still hear you. Be sure not to be selfish and release them to pass on so they will not linger on in suffering. That is all I will say about the hospice experience as you will learn more as you are actually in it. This is the time to meet with the funeral home and make preparations for the funeral and burial. You will not want to do this, but it is necessary and will help smooth out the process. Overall, hospice is a place to say your final goodbyes.

Entry # 7: Debt:

My dad only had enough life insurance to cover my mom's funeral, and this is not recommended. The moment a Cancer diagnosis is in place get as much checkup free insurance as you can get. For some reason the bill collectors do not understand the word death, and you can be stuck with bills that increase your sorrow after your loved one is gone. You will need a living will for your patient to be able to make medical decisions for them and you also need a power of attorney to deal with their accounts way before a death experience is upon you. You may have to handle business matters that they can not deal with while they are still alive and after they have passed on.Also make sure a will is in place so you do not have to deal with probate. Some accounts are easily closed after death simply by submitting a copy of the death certificate to the creditor and it is important to see if insurance is in place to pay off accounts upon death such as mortgages.

I have shared my heart, soul, and intimate personal experience with you in this article to the best of my ability. It should not take a crisis such as Cancer for us to become mortgage and debt free but if something such as Cancer arises I know that being mortgage and debt free can be one less worry. Work to reduce or delete your debts as much as possible. My dad would have more freedom and options today had his house been paid off when my mother passed. In addition to medical bills there were some prescriptions that cost $ 800 for a 10-day supply after our prescription benefits ran out. Death and sickness know nothing of the extra financial burdens that can increase and extend sorrow.

You will feel the pain of your loss for awhile and it will be absolutely unbelievable for a very long time, but you will get through it. Remember the good times, look at pictures of life, and hear the voice of your loved one live on in your mind and spirit forever. I wish you abundant peace. If you would like to find out how to get a copy of the book I've written in hopes of helping people deal with the loss of a loved one, please call or email me.

Becoming a DJ – What Does the Job Entail?

A disc jockey (DJ) is a term used to describe a variety of performers who make use of pre-recorded music for entertainment. Mobile DJs or DJs for Hire tour with mobile sound systems and typically perform at various types of events including wedding receptions, company parties, school dances, anniversary and birthday parties, etc. In the past, mobile DJs utilized formats such as vinyl records or cassettes, nowadays most mobile DJs use compact discs, computer-based files (such as MP3s), or a combination of sources.

With the ever changing faces of music, to become a great DJ for hire you need to have an extensive knowledge of all genres of music, an extensive music library and the ability to listen well and use equipment to make seamless transitions between tracks. Remember it is unethical and illegal to download songs from online sources and use it for commercial purposes. There is also a quality issue associated with downloaded songs so a DJ for hire must ensure that his music is legal. To establish a solid career, a DJ for hire must have professional grade equipment as this is more suitable for commercial use; it allows for faster set-up and break-down and provides a superior quality of performance.

A professional DJ will display many of the following skills and attributes: Master of Ceremonies, Party organizer, Sound technician, Light technician, Ability to read a crowd and pick the right music, Flexibility to adapt to sudden changes, Presentable and Organised, Ability to follow an agreed plan, Audience motivator and the Ability to blend music from different genres without altering the mood on the dance floor. Working closely with their customers, their guests, and other vendors (such as venue staff and photographers / videographers), many mobile DJs also promote themselves as event planners, organizers, and Master of Ceremonies A professional DJ for hire should strive to provide quality entertainment that fits the type and theme of each event. To achieve this, a DJ for hire should engage prospective customers in consultations and become familiar with the client's requirements, location of the event and the itinerary for the event.

With stricter regulations and legislation to adhere to, the DJ must make sure that they are fully insured, and also comply with regulations that may apply to a specific venue / location. Obtaining an operating licence will give the DJ the legal capacity to enter into business transactions. Membership with professional organizations will ensure that the DJ grows in his career, is kept up to date with recent trends and developments within the industry and is continuously trained on ethical standards. If you want to establish yourself as a professional DJ for hire you need to ensure that you will be in a position to present a customer with a legal document detailing your terms and conditions of service, a planner explaining how you intend to handle the customer's mandate and any other documents that the customer may request such as insurance certificate.

The Invisible Women of the Great Depression

During the Great Depression, women made up 25% of the work force, but their jobs were more unstable, temporary or seasonal then men, and the unemployment rate was much greater. There was also a decided bias and cultural view that "women did not work" and in fact many who were employed full time often called themselves "homemakers." Neither men in the workforce, the unions, nor any branch of government were ready to accept the reality of working women, and this bias caused females intense hardship during the Great Depression.

The 1930's was particularly hard on single, divorced or widowed women, but it was harder still on women who were not White. Women of color had to overcome both sexual and racial stereotyping. Black women in the North suffered an astounding 42.9% unemployment, while 23.2%. of White women were without work according to the 1937 census. In the South, both Black and White women were equally unemployed at 26%. In contrast, the unemployment rate for Black and White men in the North (38.9% / 18.1%) and South (18% / 16% respectively) were also lower than female counterparts.

The financial situation in Harlem was bleak even before the Great Depression. But afterward, the emerging Black working class in the North was decimated by wholesale layoffs of Black industrial workers. To be Black and a woman alone, made keeping a job or finding another one nearly impossible. The racial work hierarchy replaced Black women in waitressing or domestic work, with White women, now desperate for work, and willing to take steep wage cuts.

Survival Entrepreneurs
At the start of the Depression, while one study found that homeless women were most likely factory and service workers, domestics, garment workers, waitresses and beauticians; another suggested that the beauty industry was a major source of income for Black women. These women, later known as "survivalist entrepreneurs," became self-employed in response to a desperate need to find an independent means of livelihood. "

Replaced by White women in more traditional domestic work as cooks, maids, nurses, and laundresses, even skilled and educated Black women were so hopeless, '' that they actually offered their services at the so-called 'slave markets'-street corners where Negro women congregated to await White housewives who came daily to take their pick and bid wages down '' (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962: 246). Moreover, the home domestic service was very difficult, if not impossible, to coordinate with family responsibilities, as the domestic servant was usually on call '' around the clock '' and was subject to the '' arbitrary power of individual employers. ''


Inn Keepers and Hairdressers
Two occupations were sought out by Black women, in order to address both the need for income (or barter items) and their domestic responsibilities in northern cities during the Great Depression: (1) boarding house and lodging house keeping; and (2) hairdressing and beauty culture.

During the "Great Migration" of 1915-1930, thousands of Blacks from the South, mostly young, single men, streamed into Northern cities, looking for places to stay temporarily while they searched for housing and jobs. Housing these migrants created opportunities for Black working-class women, -now unemployed-to pay their rent.

According to one estimate, '' at least one-third '' of Black families in the urban North had lodgers or boarders during the Great Migration (Thomas, 1992: 93, citing Henri, 1976). The need was so great, multiple boarders were housed, leading one survey of northern Black families to report that '' seventy-five percent of the Negro homes have so many lodgers that they are really hotels. ''

Women were usually at the center of these webs of family and community networks within the Black community:

"They '' undertook the greatest part of the burden '' of helping the newcomers find interim housing. Women played '' connective and leadership roles '' in northern Black communities, not only because it was considered traditional" woman's work, "but also because taking in boarders and lodgers helped Black women combine housework with an informal, income-producing activity (Grossman, 1989: 133). in addition, boarding and lodging house keeping was often combined with other types of self-employment. Some of the Black women who kept boarders and lodgers also earned money by making artificial flowers and lamp shades at home. " (Boyd, 2000)

In addition from 1890 to 1940, '' barbers and hairdressers '' were the largest segments of the Black business population, together comprising about one third of this population in 1940 (Boyd, 2000 citing Oak, 1949: 48).

"Blacks tended to gravitate into these occupations because" White barbers, hairdressers, and beauticians were unwilling or unable to style the hair of Blacks or to provide the hair preparations and cosmetics used by them. Thus, Black barbers, hairdressers, and beauticians had a '' protected consumer market '' based on Whites' desires for social distance from Blacks and on the special demands of Black consumers. Accordingly, these Black entrepreneurs were sheltered from outside competitors and could monopolize the trades of beauty culture and hairdressing within their own communities.

Black women who were seeking jobs believed that one's appearance was a crucial factor in finding employment. Black self-help organizations in northern cities, such as the Urban League and the National Council of Negro Women, stressed the importance of good grooming to the newly arrived Black women from the South, advising them to have neat hair and clean nails when searching for work. Above all, the women were told avoid wearing '' head rags '' and '' dust caps '' in public (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962: 247, 301; Grossman, 1989: 150-151).

These warnings were particularly relevant to those who were looking for secretarial or white-collar jobs, for Black women needed straight hair and light skin to have any chance of obtaining such positions. Despite the hard times, beauty parlors and barber shops were the most numerous and viable Black-owned enterprises in Black communities (eg, Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962: 450-451).

Black women entrepreneurs in the urban North also opened stores and restaurants, with modest savings '' as a means of securing a living '' (Boyd, 2000 citing Frazier, 1949: 405). Called '' depression businesses, '' these marginal enterprises were often classified as proprietorships, even though they tended to operate out of '' houses, basements, and old buildings '' (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962: 454 ).

"Food stores and eating and drinking places were the most common of these businesses, because, if they failed, their owners could still live off their stocks."

"Protestant Whites Only"
These businesses were a necessity for Black women, as the preference for hiring Whites climbed steeply during the Depression. In the Philadelphia Public Employment Office in 1932 & 1933, 68% of job orders for women specified "Whites Only." In New York City, Black women were forced to go to separate unemployment offices in Harlem to seek work. Black churches and church-related institutions, a traditional source of help to the Black community, were overwhelmed by the demand, during the 1930's. Municipal shelters, required to "accept everyone," still reported that Catholics and African American women were "particularly hard to place."

No one knows the numbers of Black women left homeless in the early thirty's, but it was no doubt substantial, and invisible to the mostly white investigators. Instead, the media chose to focus on, and publicize the plight of White, homeless, middle-class "white collar" workers, as, by 1931 and 1932, unemployment spread to this middle-class. White-collar and college-educated women, usually accustomed "to regular employment and stable domicile," became the "New Poor." We do not know the homeless rates for these women, beyond an educated guess, but of all the homeless in urban centers, 10% were suggested to be women. We do know, however, that the demand for "female beds" in shelters climbed from a bit over 3,000 in 1920 to 56,808 by 1932 in one city and in another, from 1929 -1930, demand rose 270%.

"Having an Address is a Luxury Now …"
Even these beds, however, were the last stop on the path towards homelessness and were designed for "habitually destitute" women, and avoided at all cost by those who were homeless for the first time. Some number ended up in shelters, but even more were not registered with any agency. Resources were few. Emergency home relief was restricted to families with dependent children until 1934. "Having an address is a luxury just now" an unemployed college woman told a social worker in 1932.

These newly destitute urban women were the shocked and dazed who drifted from one unemployment office to the next, resting in Grand Central or Pennsylvania station, and who rode the subway all night (the "five cent room"), or slept in the park, and who ate in penny kitchens. Slow to seek assistance, and fearful and ashamed to ask for charity, these women were often on the verge of starvation before they sought help. They were, according to one report, often the "saddest and most difficult to help." These women "starved slowly in furnished rooms. They sold their furniture, their clothes, and then their bodies."

The Emancipated Woman and Gender Myths
If cultural myths were that women "did not work," then those that did were invisible. Their political voice was mute. Gender role demanded that women remain "someone's poor relation," who returned back to the rural homestead during times of trouble, to help out around the home, and were given shelter. These idyllic nurturing, pre-industrial mythical family homes were large enough to accommodate everyone. The new reality was much bleaker. Urban apartments, no bigger than two or three rooms, required "maiden aunts" or "single cousins" to "shift for themselves." What remained of the family was often a strained, overburdened, over-crowded household that often contained severe domestic troubles of its own.

In addition, few, other than African Americans, were with the rural roots to return to. And this assumed that a woman once emancipated and tasting past success would remain "malleable." The female role was an out-of-date myth, but was nonetheless a potent one. The "new woman" of the roaring twenties was now left without a social face during the Great Depression. Without a home – the quintessential element of womanhood – she was, paradoxically, ignored and invisible.

"… Neighborliness has been Stretched Beyond Human Endurance."
In reality, more than half of these employed women had never married, while others were divorced, deserted, separated or claimed to be widowed. We do not know how many were lesbian women. Some had dependent parents and siblings who relied on them for support. Fewer had children who were living with extended family. Women's wages were historically low for most female professions, and allowed little capacity for substantial "emergency" savings, but most of these women were financially independent. In Milwaukee, for example, 60% of those seeking help had been self-supporting in 1929. In New York, this figure was 85%. Their available work was often the most volatile and at risk. Some had been unemployed for months, while others for a year or more. With savings and insurance gone, they had tapped out their informal social networks. One social worker, in late 1931, testified to a Senate committee that "neighborliness has been stretched not only beyond its capacity but beyond human endurance."

Older women were often discriminated against because of their age, and their long history of living outside of traditional family systems. When work was available, it often specified, as did one job in Philadelphia, a demand for "white stenographers and clerks, under (age) 25."

The Invisible Woman
The Great Depression's effect on women, then, as it is now, was invisible to the eye. The tangible evidence of breadlines, Hoovervilles, and men selling apples on street corners, did not contain images of urban women. Unemployment, hunger and homelessness was considered a "man's problem" and the distress and despair was measured in that way. In photographic images, and news reports, destitute urban women were overlooked or not apparent. It was considered unseemly to be a homeless woman, and they were often hidden from public view, ushered in through back door entrances, and fed in private.

Partly, the problem lay in expectations. While homelessness in men had swelled periodically during periods of economic crisis, since the depression of the 1890's onward, large numbers of homeless women "on their own" were a new phenomenon. Public officials were unprepared: Without children, they were, early on, excluded from emergency shelters. One building with a capacity of 155 beds and six cribs, lodged over 56,000 "beds" during the third year of the depression. Still, these figures do not take account the number of women turned away, because they were not White or Protestant.

As the Great Depression wore on, wanting only a way to make money, these women were excluded from "New Deal" work programs set up to help the unemployed. Men were seen as "breadwinners," holding greater claim to economic resources. While outreach and charitable agencies finally did emerge, they were often inadequate to meet the demand.

Whereas black women had particular hard times participating in the mainstream economy during the Great Depression, they did have some opportunity to find alternative employment within their own communities, because of unique migration patterns that had occurred during that period. White women, in contrast, had a keyhole opportunity, if they were young and of considerable skills, although their skin color alone offered them greater access to whatever traditional employment was still available.

The rejection of traditional female roles, and the desire for emancipation, however, put these women at profound risk once the economy collapsed. In any case, single women, with both black and white skin, fared worse and were invisible sufferers.

As we enter the Second Great Depression, who will be the new "invisible homeless" and will women, as a group, fare better this time?


References:

Abelson, E. (2003, Spring2003). Women Who Have No Men to Work for Them: Gender and Homelessness in the Great Depression, 1930-1934. Feminist Studies, 29 (1), 104. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Boyd, R. (2000, December). Race, Labor Market Disadvantage, and Survivalist Entrepreneurship: Black Women in the Urban North During the Great Depression. Sociological Forum, 15 (4), 647-670. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Network Diagrams – Top 3 Reasons You Should Use Them

For many us in the 21st century, work involves sitting at a computer for much of the day. Almost everyone in business, whether an SME, a home based business, or a large corporation uses computers. Equally, almost everyone that uses computers uses a network of some sort. In my own case, I have a small home network with a couple of PCs, a couple of printers, a scanner and a few other peripherals that make life easy.

However, when I go into an organisation in order to carry out some training I sometimes take equipment with me. These are normally laptop computers, but I will often take a projector and some other training resources as well.

So why use a network diagram? Well there are several reasons, but these will vary according to the circumstances. Sometimes, your network will be created for a short period of time in order to cover specific activity. This could be a conference, a training session, or a sales pitch. On other occasions your network will be fixed in terms of the infrastructure, but will need updating when new users join it all when the hardware or software is changed.

What Software is best?

The software you choose in order to create a network diagram will depend on several factors. Elements of Microsoft Office, such as Word, PowerPoint and Visio can all be used with varying degrees of success. If you do not Microsoft use but prefer the Mac format, Ommnigraffle is the choice of most users. Specific third-party offerings include Smart Draw, E-draw Soft, Breeze tree and Gliffy; some of these are available on both Windows and Macintosh platforms and each contains its own selection of drawing shapes. For my money, the daddy of all diagramming software is Microsoft Visio Professional edition. Here's why I recommend using a network diagram:

Reason 1 – Planning

If your network is a permanent fixture, you probably spent some time thinking about how you would configure it before you connected the bits and pieces together. Even then you may well want to change things as equipment is replaced, and having a network diagram takes a lot of the donkey work out of the process. When you start the planning process you commit your thoughts and ideas to paper, making it easy to change things around later on.

On the other hand, if your network is ad hoc, like mine is when I go on site, having a network diagram enables you to quickly and easily set up the equipment before you begin. A network diagram takes the guesswork out of configuring routers, switches and the other hardware required.

Reason 2 – Security

Whether your network is fixed or not it is a very good idea to have a record of all the equipment contained within it. Indeed, in many cases when equipment is being taken off the site, it is a condition of the insurance company that all serial numbers, asset numbers, logins and passwords are recorded somewhere, and what better place to record all that information? If you create your network diagram using software such as Microsoft Visio you will be able to add all the relevant information to the shapes representing the hardware.

Visio also allows the creation of an inventory list from its reports feature – a very handy timesaver for a busy network administrator. Once the data has been added to the network diagram it is an easy matter to change it if an additional user or hardware is added. A variety of reports can be run, including ones created for a specific occasion, including the default choices of a network device report, a network equipment report, a PC report and the inventory report.

Reason 3 – Flexibility

Depending on the software you choose, you may find that you have more or fewer choices when it comes to the type of diagram you want to create. Visio Professional edition comes out tops here again, with incredible versatility that allows the creation of:

  • Active directory diagrams
  • Equipment rack diagrams
  • LDAP diagrams
  • Logical and physical network diagrams
  • Topologies for large networks and drill-down diagrams

If you work with large networks containing thousands of nodes you can use Visio professional to create high-level diagrams showing, for example, all the routers on your network, or the service providers that support your network in different areas of the country. The Cloud shape on the Network Locations stencil in Visio professional is ideal for representing very high level connectivity.

Summary

Whatever software you choose, having a network diagram will make life much easier. Visio Standard allows you to create basic network diagrams, but with the Professional version you can create detailed network diagrams for networks, directory services diagrams, and rack layouts. You can add shape data to enhance the appearance of diagrams, allocate equipment to users, record serial numbers, asset keys, manufacturers and specifications and use this data to generate reports on the devices in your network.

Further resources FREE For, tutorials and videos visit our website at Visio Tutorial .

How to Apply For a Schengen Visa in Thailand

The Schengen Agreement is a treaty aiming towards the abolition of common borders of states in Europe that was signed on 14 June 1985. Only France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands and West Germany initially signed, but now there are already about 25 members. Now, this group of states is known as the Schengen area.

Schengen Visa

In consonance with the above mentioned agreement, the Schengen visa has been created. This is in a form of a sticker affixed by the issuing consulate onto the passport or travel document which authorizes the holder to cross borders in Schengen area on condition that he / she met the entry conditions.

Schengen visa has several categories: A, B, C, D, D + C, FTD and FRTD. In Thailand, it is Schengen visa "C" that is popularly applied for because it serves as a short term visa allowing the holder to visit Schengen states for a maximum duration of 90 days in a six month period.

Schengen Visa Application

All consulates of members of the Schengen area are allowed to issue Schengen visas. However, an applicant should file his / her application with the proper consulate. There are three rules to identify which is consulate may receive the request.

First, if he / she wants to visit a Schengen country, he / she needs to apply before the consulate of that particular country.

Second, when several Schengen states are intended to be visited, the consulate of the main destination may issue the visa. For example, the applicant wants to go to Belgium and France, but the intended stay in France is longer, hence, the French Consulate is the proper consulate to grant the visa.

Third, if the applicant is not sure which country will be his / her main destination, the appropriate consulate is that of the country of first entry.

Lastly, when there is no consulate for the country that is the main destination or the first entry in the applicant's country, he / she may contact the consulate of a Schengen country, which represents, for the purpose of issuing Schengen visa, the country of primary destination or first entry.

The documentary requirements vary depending on the Schengen consulate and purpose of the visit. The standard papers essential to requests for this type of visa for all consulates are valid passport, recent photograph, application form, and proof of medical insurance. The minimum insurance coverage is EUR30,000.00.

Schengen Visa Application Process in Thailand

The visa applicant can complete the application form and obtain the necessary supporting documents before submitting the application to the appropriate Schengen embassy in Thailand. The process normally takes 4-5 business days. It usually takes longer if interview is required.

In case the applicant is applying a said visa based on sponsorship, the sponsor needs to make an official sponsorship declaration in his / her home country which he then provide to the visa applicant as supporting evidence for the application.

Using a Visa agent

While the application process for this type of visa appears to be simple and straightforward, the applicant who is unfamiliar with immigration forms and limited by language barrier may find the application rather frustrating. This case with In, it would be good to ask the Assistance of a qualified visa agent View to assist . With the Schengen visa application in Thailand.

Medical Billing – NSF or UB-92

It is no longer a question in the medical billing community of what the best method of sending claims is. Electronic billing has numerous advantages over sending paper claims including ease of transmission, lower cost, faster turnaround time and a number of other advantages. But what about the type of electronic format? The main ones today are NSF 3.01 and UB-92. So what's the difference and is one better than another? Which one should you use? Does it make a difference? Will using one format over another give you more headaches in the long run? In this installment, we're going to discuss the basic differences between NSF 3.01 and UB-92, including the pluses and minuses of each.

The first thing that you need to know is that NSF 3.01 has been around a lot longer than UB-92. Back in the early days of electronic billing, it was the only option. Therefore, software manufacturers had to include it with their product if they were going to compete in the marketplace. Because of this and because everybody was creating their own NSF 3.01 package, each software manufacturer had to do the best job they possibly could. Because of this, NSF 3.01 was pretty much perfected. The only differences between the software packages was the interface for transmission. The specifications themselves were pretty solid.

Today, with the two formats available and NSF 3.01 no longer being the only choice, for a medical billing agency to switch over to UB-92, there had to be a good reason. Well, there were several.

For starters, because it was a relatively new format, the software was a lot cheaper than the software to send NSF 3.01 claims. For small medical billing agencies, this was a big plus, especially if they did not have a large client base. Also, the cost to process these claims was cheaper because the format itself was not as popular and agencies were trying to get companies to use it. But there was a downside to all this.

Because UB-92 was new, there were not as many pieces of software to choose from. Most of them were also untested. The early failure rate of UB-92 transmission was great. The specifications were confusing and finding good programmers to create the code was not an easy task. So finding good software was very hard.

Another problem was that because UB-92 was new, not every carrier accepted claims in this format. In the early days only private carriers accepted claims in this format. Even today, not every carrier accepts UB-92 format as a transmission method. So if you are thinking of going with UB-92, you first better check to make sure that the insurance carrier you want to bill accepts claims in that format.

Today, the differences between NSF 3.01 and UB-92 are not quite as great. Yes, there are still insurance carriers that do not accept UB-92 claims. But more carriers are taking them. The downside is that because UB-92 is becoming more popular, the cost has gone up since the early days. So the difference in cost between NSF 3.01 and UB-92 are not as great.

In the final analysis, it all comes down to what your budget is and who you want to send your bills to. In most cases, either NSF 3.01 or UB-92 will get the job done nicely.

Human Resource Planning for Healthcare

The WHO defines HRH (Human resource for health) planning as "the process of estimating the number of persons & the kinds of knowledge, skills, & attitudes they need to achieve predetermined health targets & ultimately health status objectives".

HR planning is a dynamic process, involves 3 stages; stocktaking, forecasting, & designing temporary workforce. In the first stage of stocktaking, recruitment & selection of key types of employees align with strategic business plan to achieve specific targets. The second stage of forecasting is subdivided into two phases, forecasting future people needs (demand forecasting) & forecasting availability of people (supply forecasting). The third & final phase involves flexible strategy to recruit temporary employees as per need assessment & cost-effective benefits.

1. Stock-taking: – The principle is to identify how many people are needed at every level of the organization to achieve business objectives- in line with overall strategic plans – & what kind of knowledge, skills, abilities & other characteristics these people need .

The optimal staffing of modern health services requires many different types of staff. These include; –

1. Clinical workers – doctors & nurses.

2. Technical staff for diagnostic services, such as laboratory & radiology, pharmacy staff.

3. Environment health workers, such as health inspectors.

4. Preventive & promotive staff, such as community health workers, administrative staff, etc.

In a healthcare organization, traditional quantitative approach are used to make enumerative judgments based on subjective managers prediction to allocate certain budgets for employee's payroll expenditure & need assessment of key employee potentiating responsive to organizational system & design. Resource allocations are best executed with the help of activity based cost management, that controls cost & labor required for specific job / event & reduce wastage.

For example: Comparative rates of healthcare activity: –

Inpatient care bed days per capita

Acute care bed days per capita

Acute care staff ratio – staff per bed

Acute care nurses ratio – staff per bed

Inpatient admissions per 1000 population

Acute care admissions per 1000 population

Doctors consultation's per capita.

The types of health staff in a particular country are dictated by the kinds of health services provided & level of technology available.

For example: –

Nature of health organization: primary, secondary, & tertiary.

Types of sector: public, private, non-profit funded organization.

Infrastructure: size of the hospital (200 beds, 400 beds, 1000 beds).

General (multispecialty) or specific care providers (cardiovascular, cancer).

2. Forecasting: –

Demand forecasting: – Planning for the medical workforce is complex & determined by relatively mechanistic estimates of demand for medical care. Dr. Thomas L. Hall (1991) proposed 5 generic methods for estimating demand for health care, such as

1. Personnel to population ratio method: – This method calculates ratio of number of health

Personnel as compared with the population count. However, with inappropriate data available, it has serious limitations, such as it is only applicable with acceptable health conditions, a stable health sector, & a limited capacity for planning.

2. The health-needs method: -This method requires & translates expert opinion about people's health needs to staff requirements. Health needs are derived from the determination of disease specific mortality & morbidity rates. The staff requirements are evaluated from the norms for the number, kind, frequency, & quality of services, & staffing standards that convert the services into time requirements by a certain category of health workers to perform the services. This method initiates the need for sophisticated data system & survey capabilities, & a high level of planning expertise which are not readily available.

3. The service -demands method: -This method accounts the numbers & kinds of health services people will use at an anticipated cost of obtaining them, rather than their professionally determined need for such services. This specifically provides data about economical regression pertaining to utilization of private healthcare sector as compared to government funded health sector.

4. The managed healthcare system's method: – The managed health care system's entails a known client population who would have reasonably good access to health amenities. But flexible socio-political trends & economical recession influence healthcare reform policies.

Supply forecasting: –

Forecasting HR supply involves using information from the internal & external labor market. The calculation of staff turnover & workforce stability indices measures internal supply for HR Planning. External labor market gives detailed spectrum on tightness of supply, demographic factors, & social / geographic aspects.

Internal supply: – The evaluation of the gross number of people needed for a specific job & arrange for other provisions of HR processes, such as training & developmental programs, transfer & promotion policies, retirement, career planning, & others have crucial importance in maintaining constant supply of HR in an organization.

1. Stock & flow model: – This model follow the employee's path through the organization over time, & attempt to predict how many employees are needed & in which part of the organization.

a) Wastage analysis; – This analysis refers to the rate at which people leave the organization, or represents the turnover index.

The number of people leaving in a specific period

Wastage analysis = x 100

The average number employed in the same period

b) Stability analysis (Bowey, 1974): – This method is useful in analyzing the extent of wastage in terms of length of service.

Total length of service of manpower employed at the time of analysis

Stability analysis = x 100

Total possible length of service had there been no manpower wastage

2. Replacement Charts: – Replacement chart is a list of employee's for promotion, selected upon the opinions & recommendations of higher ranking people (Mello, 2005). Some replacement charts are more systematic showing skills, abilities, competences, & experience levels of an employee.

3. Succession Planning: – An aging workforce & an emerging "Baby boom" retirement waves are driving the need for new management process known as succession planning that involves analyzing & forecasting the talent potentials to execute business strategy.

Will Powley, senior consulting manager for GE Healthcare's performance solutions group says, that the first step in effective succession planning is a quarterly talent review that begins with an examination of the hospital or health system's organizational chart.

In a 2008 White Paper on succession planning, GE Healthcare identified a few best practices for healthcare for succession planning:

1. Identify & develop talent at all levels

2. Assess top performer's talent rigorously & repeatedly

3. Link talent management closely with external recruiting

4. Keep senior management actively involved

5. Emphasize on-the-job leadership & customized employee development

6. Create systematic talent reviews & follow-up plans

7. Maintain dialogue with potential future leaders.

External supply: – HR managers use outside information, such as statistics concerning the labor market from the organization & external labor market, in other words external & internal statistics.

External statistics: – Graduate profile

Unemployment rates

Skill levels

Age profile

Graduate profile: – There is substantial public sector regulation of all health care markets, & entry to labor market is highly constrained by licensing & professional regulations.

Unemployment rates: – There is lack of economic principles, the role of incentives is largely ignored & supply elasticity in the labor market is mostly unknown & poorly researched.

Skill levels: – Higher education (specialization & super-specialization) are proportionally restricted to limited seats of admission governed by medical regulatory bodies.

Age profile: – The organizational charts of recruitment gives details of rates of recruitment, retention, return & early retirement of employee's, which helps to enumerate future vacancy rates, shortages, & need for replacement.

Internal statistics: – Demographic profile

Geographic distribution

Demographic profile: – Demographic changes (eg the number of young people entering the labor force) affect the external supply of labor. Age composition of workforce will force to review recruitment policies. The trend of increasing proportion of women in employment has lead to progressive development of both organization & country.

Geographic distribution: – The attraction of workforce to urban areas are influence by following reasons; employment opportunity, access to facilities – transportation & technology, & others.

3. Temporary workforce planning: –

Herer & Harel (1998) classifies temporary workers as: temporary employee's, contract employees, consultants, leased employees, & outsourcing.

High social costs has initiated work sharing strategy which are flexible & provides more benefits, such as

1. Part- time temporary workers numbers & hours can be adapted easily with low maintenance cost to meet organizational needs,

2. Employees possessing appropriate / specialized skills benefits functional areas within & outside the organization.

3. No responsibility for exclusive benefit enrollments, such as job security, pension plan, insurance coverage, etc.

In today's work environment, outsourcing can be added as a temporary worker planning technique. Outsourcing requirement is assessed & evaluated on cost & benefit decision. Ambulatory services, pathological or diagnostic testing services, laundry, catering, billing, medical transcription, & others are most commonly outsourcing services promoted in healthcare organization.

Can You Sue a Car Dealer For Excessive Hard Credit Inquiries?

I came across this question, "Can I sue a car dealer for excessive hard credit inquiries?" when reviewing search terms on my blog and thought this is a good topic for further discussion.

First Of All, What Is A Hard Inquiry?

There are two types of credit inquiries, hard and soft.

A hard inquiry is a credit inquiry pulled for the purpose of obtaining credit. These types of inquiries are usually pulled for things such as a home, auto or personal loan. Landlords and tenant screen services credit inquiries are also considered hard inquiries.

A soft inquiry is a credit inquiry requested for informational purposes. If you request your own credit through a site such as AnnualCreditReport.com, this is considered a soft inquiry and does not deduct points off your score. Additionally, creditors whom you currently do business with can pull a soft inquiry to do an account review and evaluate your current credit worthiness. Offers for "pre-approved credit are not counted as hard inquiries. Credit inquiries for insurance and employment also fall into this category, as they are not made for the purpose of granting you credit.

How Many Points Can Be Deducted For A Credit Inquiry?

o Each "hard" credit inquiry (meaning the consumer has applied for some form of credit, prompting the creditor to check the credit report or score) that is counted normally subtracts no more than five points from a person's score.

Auto Loan Inquiries

Auto loan and home loan inquiries are treated a little differently since 2004. Due to the fact that most folks like to shop around for both home and auto loans, the credit bureaus recognized the fact that each inquiry was having a negative impact on credit scores because of the multiple pulls. This practice was hurting the consumer's credit score and not allowing the consumer to shop around for the best rates and terms.
So, Fair Isaac changed the rules a bit for Auto and Home Loan credit inquiries:

o The credit-scoring model recognizes that many consumers shop around for the best interest rates before buying a car or home and that their searching may cause multiple lenders to request their credit report. To compensate for this, multiple auto or mortgage inquiries in any 14-day period are counted as one inquiry.

o In the newest formula used to calculate FICO scores, that 14-day period has been expanded to any 45-day period. This means consumers can shop around for an auto loan for up to 45 days without affecting their scores. But the old 14-day rule might still apply at some lenders that are not using the new version.

o The newest FICO version went online at all three credit agencies – TransUnion, Equifax and Experian – in 2004, Typically it takes lenders months to adjust their processes so they can accommodate revised formulas – and some lenders never adjust.

o The FICO score ignores all mortgage and auto inquiries made in the 30 days before scoring. If you find a loan within 30 days, the inquiries will not affect your score while you're rate-shopping.

How To Avoid Multiple Hard Auto Inquiries

If you want to avoid multiple hits to your credit while you're shopping for an auto loan, you'll need to set aside a two week period to completely concentrate on getting your financing in place.

o Find Out What Your Credit Score Is :

In order to shop for a loan without being dinged for multiple credit inquiries, you'll need to know what your credit scores are. This will also help you to determine whether you are "bankable" or if you're going to have some difficulty getting financing.

You can get an estimate of your FICO Score to give you an idea of ​​the current range of your scores, or you can purchase a 3-in-1 Report with FICO in one easy to read report for just $ 39.95 so you'll know exactly what your credit scores are.

o Get Pre-Approved At A Bank :

Now that you know what your credit scores are, call around to local banks in your area and ask, "What is the minimum credit score one needs to have to be pre-approved for an auto loan?"

If you know that your credit scores fall into their "approval guidelines", then ask what are their interest rates and terms, such as how much down payment are they going to require.

Once you've determined the lender with the most favorable terms, go into that bank and apply. Some banks even have an 800 Phone Loan Center or on-line application process available so you do not have to go anywhere.

Once you have been pre-approved by the lender of your choice, you normally have 30 days before the pre-approval expires.

If you decide to go this route, not only are you getting the best interest rate around without generating multiple credit inquiries, but you'll also find out how much you're approved for, which will make shopping for an auto easier in the long run.

o Getting Auto Financing If You're Not "Bankable"

If your credit scores fall below what you've found to be "bankable", you're going to need to find financing elsewhere. There are several ways you can do this.

1. You can go through an on-line Vehicle Financing Network. These networks have access to multiple lenders and their guidelines. They will have to pull your credit in order to find out what your scores are themselves, but then they have access to many auto loan financing companies specializing in consumers with "less than perfect credit". Once they've determined which lender you have the greatest chance of being approved with, they'll forward your application along.

2. Go auto shopping and when you find the car you want, the dealership will be more than happy to submit your loan application to multiple lenders. Remember, if you decide to go this route, you have 14 days of unlimited credit pulls to count as 1 pull.

If you continue to do this month after month, you're going to see about 5 points deducted off your score every time your credit is pulled.

The Answer To The Original Question – " Can You Sue A Car Dealer For Excessive Hard Inquiries?"

Civil liability for knowing noncompliance: "Any person who obtains a consumer report from a consumer reporting agency under false pretenses or knowingly without a permissible purpose shall be liable to the consumer reporting agency for actual damages sustained by the consumer reporting agency or $ 1,000, whichever is greater. "

What this boils down to is ….. READ WHAT YOU SIGN! If you applied for financing with a car dealership, then you must have filled out a loan application. Did the paperwork that you signed say that they would submit your application to multiple lenders?

If you did not grant them permission to pull your credit, then you may have a case to sue for $ 1,000, but in my view, it's going to be way more hassle than it's worth. The easiest way to handle the situation to your benefit, is to dispute the inquiries with the credit bureaus that are reporting them.

If the creditors that pulled your credit can not prove "permissible purpose", then the credit reporting agencies will remove these inquiries. If the creditors come back stating they had permissible purpose, you have every right to ask them for the documentation to prove it. Again, if they can not come up with that documentation, the credit reporting agencies will have to remove the inquiry.

Once the inquiry or multiple inquiries are removed, you should see an increase in your credit scores. It's a tiny bit of work on your part, but way easier than trying to sue for $ 1000.00.

Inspect, Expect and Respect

There's an old mantra in regards to management that I believe originated at 3M. It's quite simple and really sheds a good light on how to lead. Or rather what you should deem important in your engagement with the team. It goes like this:

Inspect what you expect them to respect – and in turn, they will respect what they expect you to inspect.

Do not care if your team shows up on time or leaves early? Do not inspect it, and they will fail to respect it.

Do not care about the abandoned call rates in your service center? Do not make the information visible or accountable, and they will fail to respect it.

On the other hand, if your close rates are critical to your company's success then inspect them and, in turn, the team will respect them.

It's a very simple process and one that can help you to be a better leader and lead your organization or industry across important benchmarking categories and enhanced sales success results.

I'd like to share a quick story to highlight this. And who knows, perhaps this classic originated at 3M:

Years ago, OK decades ago, a company was trying to sell new lighting to a manufacturing plant. They wanted to convince the plant owners that new lighting would make the plant more productive. So they decided to test and measure it. Portions of the plant were provided the bright new lights, and others were not. They monitored and measured the results.

Do you know what they found? Their results were not so much about the new lighting as they were about management and leadership and inspecting what you expect them to respect. You see, they discovered that employees are much more productive when they are watched. When the management team cares enough to keep an eye on the business operations, the employees sit up and pay notice and become more productive.

Inspect what you expect them to respect and in turn, they will respect what they expect you to inspect.

And remember, if you need help 'inspecting' to get the respect you expect, take time out to invest in sales management training, sales training seminars or an innovative leadership training workshop.

Obtaining the extra tools you need to efficiently inspect to find the respect your business requires will save you time and money. Eventually, the sales team will bring in larger returns as they begin to respect what you inspect and expect!