What Is a Payslip?

A payslip is a small document, mainly a slip of paper, which contains records of an employee's wage or salary, including details of insurance paid, tax paid, pension contribution and other charges.

A payslip is issued by employers to all the employees in every organization. Every employee of any organization has the right to a payslip. It is issued to an employee at the end of every month or the agreed time of payment between an employee and employer.

It is mainly prepared at the accounts department by the employee who prepares the payroll – mostly the accountant, and later distributed to all the employees of an organization, either using email or as a hard copy.
Indicated in the payslip is,

– The total monthly pay with no deductions taken ie the gross pay
– The income tax – which is the amount of money paid by the employee to the Inland Revenue. This amount is based on the employee's total income
– The National Insurance Contribution, which is a contribution made by employees to a Government Insurance Organization, to cover for the employee's unemployment and illness. This amount also depends on an employee's total income
– The pension scheme contributions which is the amount paid to the pension scheme provider, to boost an employee's income upon retirement
– The net pay which is the total amount of money an employee takes home after all the deductions are made.
– The name and address of the employee.
– The period for which the payment is being made.

The importance of having a payslip is that it is a record document that may be used in future as reference, especially when seeking new jobs, as most employers seek an employee's payslip for the previous organization they were employed in, mainly as a verification that the employee was actually employed in the organization he claims. It may also used in banks when obtaining loans. The bank calculates the amount of money they will loan you, according to the figures on your payslip.

Practical Tips to Obtain Defendant Driver's Cell Phone Records In Car Accident Injury Lawsuits

Background: using cell phones while driving is an inherently unsafe: Everyone knows now that it is unsafe to drink and drive, but the effects of cell phone use while driving are perhaps even more devastating, because the use of cell phones while driving is so wide -spread. According to the a National Safety Council fact sheet, drivers using cell phones account for nearly 25 percent of all motor vehicle crashes annually. In fact, research has shown that driving while using a cell phone is comparable to the devastating effects that alcohol causes to the motoring public. See, A Comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver, Human Factors, Vol. 48, No. 2, Summer 2006, pp. 381-391. Sadly, 81 percent of driver have admitted to using a cell phone while driving, according to the National Safety Council fact sheet.

In bringing your motions to compel cell phone records, it is important to bring the above-referenced documents to the attention of the judge hearing your motion. It is also crucial to let juries know of these dangers, because it will affect how the jury views the defendant's conduct, even in cases where the defense admits to liability in a rear-end collision. It is not enough to stipulate to liability and let the defendant escape accountability to the jury for the despicable nature of using a cell phone while driving. If our firm finds out that the defendant was using a cell phone, we will attach a punitive damages cause of action to the complaint, alleging that doing so was despicable conduct within the meaning of Civil Code section 3294. If you have clear facts showing that there was cell phone usage, by all means, include a punitive damages allegation with the original complaint, so that you are not forced to make a motion to amend your complaint to allege punitive damages.

Do not get timed out: It is important to recognize the key defense that the defendants possess and neutralize that defense immediately: timing. It can often take 6 months or more to get cell phone records from the time that you first notice the deposition duces tecum until you have the records in your hands. In most aspects of a personal injury case, the defense will try to stall and delay the case until it is time for trial, and discovery has closed, leaving the plaintiff with holes in her case. That is particularly true with cell phone records. The defendant will claim to have forgotten his cell phone number and the name of his cell phone carrier. He will claim to have lost his cell phone records. The cell phone carrier will throw up road blocks, too. In most cases, the judge will not let you get the cell phone records from the carrier until you have demonstrated due diligence in getting the records from the defendant himself.

As you will see in this article and the associated subsequent articles, there is a long process for seeking these documents through written depositions, written discovery, meet-and-confer letters, amended responses by the defense, followed by more meet-and-confer letters, and ultimately, your motion to compel. If you do not lay the foundation, or move too quickly, the discovery judge will deny your motion to compel. So be sure to build into your discovery plan ample time to go through the whole process. Compelling cell phone records is like baking a layer cake; you have to build it one layer at a time.

Also, keep in mind that if you want to amend your complaint to allege punitive damages, California Rules of Court, Rule 3.1324, will require you to demonstrate good cause why your motion was not brought earlier. Do not hand the defense an easy escape due to lack of diligence in bringing the motion to amend the complaint to allege punitive damages pursuant to Civil Code section 3294.

Start your hunt right away: Look for indications of cell phone usage on the part of the defense very early on in the case. Start with the intake with your client. Include a question about cell phone usage on the part of both your client and the defense in your intake questionnaire.

If your client knows that the defendant was using their cell phone, your client will usually tell you, because by now most people are aware that using a cell phone while driving is despicable conduct, particularly if the defendant was not using the phone in a hands -free way. If you client does not mention cell phone usage, be sure to ask your client about cell phone usage in the same way that you would screen for drunk driving, because, as mentioned above, cell phones are the new drunk driving and can change the entire course of the litigation, as we will see. Insurers are willing to waive liability and settle early where their insureds were using their cell phones at the time of the collision in the same way that they do with drunk driving cases.

Sometimes clients will have seen the defendant on their cell phone a few minutes before the incident happened, for example, if they were passing the defendant and were later rear-ended by the defendant, so probe your client's memory as to the first time that they saw the defendant, and think about if they saw any signs of the defendant using the cell phone.

After speaking with your client, think about other sources of information about the collision. Look at the police report, of course, to see if the reporting officer noted cell phone use. Contact all of the witnesses listed in the report to see if they noticed the defendant using a cell phone. Be sure to ask your clients and the witnesses if they saw the defendant appearing to speak to himself, because even hands-free driving is distracted driving, and the above-cited studies show that a driver's response time is reduced even with hands-free usage . As if they saw the defendant gesturing while driving, because of course many people will gesture with their hands while on the phone.

Even if your client and the witnesses are unable to state that they saw direct evidence of cell phone usage, such as the defendant holding a cell phone to his ear or talking to no one while driving alone, it is possible to infer cell phone usage where the defendant has no logical story to explain their odd driving behavior. For example, if your client sees the vehicle coming up on them from behind and failing to slow down, your client might not have time to focus their gaze on the driver before impact, but the fact that the driver does not slow down is a flag indicating that the driver was distracted. Weaving is of course another example of distracted driving, as is odd variations in speed. You will need all of these facts to persuade a discovery judge that there are some indicia of distracted driving before the judge will let you compel the defendant's cell phone records.

File suit early: If you see flags indicated distracted driving, file suit immediately. You will need to begin the process of investigation through formal discovery immediately, because insurers are going to fight this discovery battle tooth and nail, as they are aware that the public is disgusted with distracted driving, and that distracted driving will open up their insured's personal assets, creating a conflict. Of course, it is exactly this kind of conflict that you want to create for the purpose of leveraging a decent settlement for your client.

If you see flags indicating distracted driving, consider serving a deposition notice on the defendant 20 days after service is effected on them, pursuant to California Code of Civil Procedure section 2025.210 (b) which provides in pertinent part as follows:

2025.210 (b) The plaintiff may serve a deposition notice without leave of court on any date that is 20 days after the service of the summons on, or appearance by, any defendant. On motion with or without notice, the court, for good cause shown, may grant to a plaintiff leave to serve a deposition notice on an earlier date.

The prevailing wisdom is that you should serve form interrogatories by mail after receiving the defendant's answer, but it is exactly that kind of supposed "common sense" that you want to avoid in these cases. You want to send the defense a signal that you are different, and they should not expect "the usual" from you in any aspect of this case. It also sends the defense a signal that you are not going to permit them to enjoy their primary defense tactic, that of stall and delay. This practice also gives you access to the defendant before the defense adjuster and defense attorney have had extra time to help the defendant formulate false testimony. In their haste to prepare an answer, the defense might not have time to screen the defendant for cell phone usage, and so the defendant might be unwary of the need to prevaricate about his cell phone usage.

After serving the complaint and summons, fax and mail the defense adjuster to let them know that service has been effected, and let them know that you expect a timely answer to the complaint. Then serve the deposition notice, and again fax and mail the defense with a letter saying that you expect the defendant to appear on the date noticed for the deposition. Make sure that you give yourself enough time to actually get the deposition notice served. Code of Civil Procedure section 2025.270 (a) requires 10 days' notice.

The defense attorney will likely phone you to say that there is a conflict in their schedule, but you should politely and persistently insist on an early deposition for the defendant. When the defense attorney asks what the rush is all about, tell them that it is the plaintiff's job to move the ball, and that the defense should expect to see this pace continued all throughout the case. Do not, of course, talk about your interest in getting discovery of cell phone usage at this point. The defense will not understand why you are pushing the case so quickly, and it will make them start to question their assumptions about what is "normal" in a case, including their "usual" evaluation of the ultimate case value.

The purloined letter, hidden in plain view: You are going to want to include a duces tecum demand with your deposition notice. In that duces tecum demand, you are going to want to ask for cell phone records. Be sure to bury the request for the cell phone records in the middle of the demand somewhere, well after the usual request for photographs and statements of the plaintiff and witnesses, etc, unless you have alleged punitive damages in your complaint, in which case the cell phone usage will be front and center. Be sure to serve along with the deposition subpoena set of form interrogatories, a standard request for production of documents, a set of specially-prepared interrogatories, if that is needed in your case, and a request for admissions. All of these documents can be served any time that is 10 days after service of the summons on the defendant. See CCP sections 2030.020, 2031.020, and 2033.020, respectively.

It is important to serve a standard set of requests for admissions, along with the deposition notice and the other documents. The requests for admissions should certainly ask the defendant to admit the facts of liability from your client's perspective, and should ask them to admit the ultimate fact that the defendant is at fault for causing the collision. This is particularly true if the case is a rear-ender, because the defense attorney will oppose the motion to compel cell phone records on the basis of that the cell phones are not relevant in a rear-end collision. When the defendant denies liability in the request for admissions, as they inevitably will, you now have ammunition to show the discovery judge that liability is disputed, and therefore the cell phone records will go to the issue of fault.

Be thorough in deposing the defendant on how the collision happened: If you have spotted one of the flags of distracted driving, typically the defendant will not admit cell phone use. You will need to first lay the foundation for the erratic driving. Be sure to begin the deposition with a benign tone toward the deponent. Do not clue them into the fact that you are going to press them later in the deposition, because they will become defensive, and they will not give you the key facts that lay the foundation for the flags of distracted driving.

The defendant will typically admit that they rear-ended your client, if that is the case, but they will gloss over the facts leading up to the impact. You will definitely want to ask them when it was that they noticed that your client was stopped, and what they did to avoid the collision. You can ask them lead-in questions such as "it sounds like you were a bit distracted" or "it sounds like your attention drifted off of the road for a little bit." Then, ask them if their windows in the car were rolled up or rolled down. Ask them if their radio was playing. Ask them if they had some trouble keeping their vehicle in their lane.

Then ask them if they were using their cell phone at the time of the collision. If they say no, ask them when the last time was that they used their cell phone before the collision. Ask them where they kept their cell phone. Was it attached to their belt? Was it in a purse or brief case? If there were other occupants in the defendants' vehicle, be sure to set their depositions for a time immediately following the defendant's deposition, so that the defendant will be clued into the fact that his fabrications might be contradicted by other sworn testimony.

Sample duces tecum demand in commercial driving cases: You can count on the defendant to be evasive in deposition. It is not uncommon for the defendant to say that they do not remember their cell phone number or the name of their cell phone carrier! If that is the case, you will need to make sure that you have requested collision reports and bills of lading applicable to the shipment that the defendant was carrying, in case the driver's cell phone number is there. Here is some language that would cover those items:

All written collision reports prepared by defendant Donald T. Driver pertaining to the subject collision.

All drivers' time sheets, log books (regardless of form) involved in recording the subject tractor truck's usage and mileage by all drivers in the 72 hours prior to the subject collision.

Do not assume that the defense attorney will object to the collision report prepared by the driver. It might be that the defense attorney will need to use the collision report to refresh the recollection of the driver, and so might give up the collision report, rather than argue that it was an attorney-client communication prepared by the driver for the insurance adjuster to prepare for litigation.

Sample language for special interrogatories seeking the defendants' cell phone info: If the defendant claims in deposition to have forgotten their cell phone number or the name of their carrier, you will need to serve specially-prepared interrogatories to elicit that information. Here are some sample questions:

State the name of all mobile telephone carriers used by defendant Donald T. Driver on the date of the subject incident which is the subject of this lawsuit.

State the name of any mobile telephone carrier with whom defendant Donald T. Driver had a contract for mobile telephone service on the date of the subject which is the subject of this lawsuit.

State the mobile telephone number (s) of any mobile telephone (s) for which defendant Donald T. Driver had active service on the date of the subject incident.

State the name of the mobile telephone carrier providing service for each of the mobile telephone numbers for which defendant Donald T. Driver had active service on the date of the subject incident.

State the mobile telephone number (s) of any active mobile telephone (s) provided to defendant Donald T. Driver by his employer on the date of the subject incident.

State the name of the mobile telephone carrier providing service for each of the mobile telephone numbers provided to defendant Donald T. Driver by his employer on the date of the subject incident.

Was defendant Donald T. Driver using a mobile telephone for driving directions at the time of the subject collision?

Was defendant Donald T. Driver using a mobile telephone for voice communications at the time of the subject collision?

Was defendant Donald T. Driver using a mobile telephone for text communications at the time of the subject collision?

Was defendant Donald T. Driver using a mobile telephone for any purpose at the time of the subject collision?

When was the last time before the subject collision that defendant Donald T. Driver used a mobile telephone for any purpose?

IDENTIFY the last person that defendant Donald T. Driver spoke with by mobile telephone preceding the subject collision?

As used in these interrogatories, "IDENTIFY" means to provide the name, address, and a telephone number of the person to be identified.

Sample language requesting cell phone records: Below is an example of language that you can use in requesting cell phone records. Be sure to include questions that are both narrowly directed to the time of the collision, as well as questions that are broader, so that the defense will not say that they do not have records which are precisely that exact. Bear in mind that the defendant will typically say that they are not in the possession, custody, and control of the requested records. Your primary purpose in requesting these records is to demonstrate to the discovery judge that it will be necessary to compel the defendant to sign a release of records, because the defendant will, by that time, have answered these questions saying that they do not have possession of the records. In most cases, the only custodian of the records will be the carriers, but you have to set up the defendant by asking these questions first.

Produce all contracts for the delivery of mobile telephony service entered into between defendant Donald T. Driver and any mobile telephony carrier which was in effect at the time of the subject collision.

Produce all contracts for the delivery of mobile telephony service entered into between defendant Donald T. Driver's employer and any mobile telephony carrier which provided service for defendant Donald T. Driver's use in effect at the time of the subject collision.

Produce any and all billing statements in the possession, custody or control of the responding defendants for mobile telephony service used by defendant Donald T. Driver for mobile telephony service which was in effect for the billing period which covered the date of service for May 1, 2008 [insert the date of your subject collision].

Produce any and all billing statements covering the period of 10:00 am through 2:00 pm on the day of the subject collision for mobile telephony service used by defendant Donald T. Driver.

You are going to have to customize the language above to fit your case. If the collision happened at 12:00 noon, for example, you will want to go back to 10:00 am and forward to 2:00 pm to make sure that you get the data for the subject call, in case the parties or the reporting police officer got the time of the collision a bit off.

Conclusion: It may be a long haul to get cell phone records in car accident litigation, start now: You can count on both the defendant and the defense attorney to fight tooth and nail to prevent you from getting your hands on the requested cell phone records . Start your hunt early, or you will find that you are right up against the discovery cut-off without your records, or without adequate time to amend your complaint to allege punitive damages.

Fraudulent and Deceptive Practices That Film Crews Face

While most production companies are honest and upstanding, a few bad apples make life miserable for film crews. Scams and "oversights" occur mainly in the ultra-low or limited budget fields, so for crew members it's beneficial to know up front the various problems you might encounter. You should realize that producers are prone to stretching the truth to secure financing.

This same mindset prevails when it comes to hiring crew members. Their strategy is to minimize compensation, maximize output, and avoid accountability. For non-union crew members, there are limited protections as to compensation, working hours, or fringe benefits. In addition, with numerous applicants for almost every position, ones negotiating position is severely weakened.

Just the same, a little knowledge may up your earnings and lessen your headaches. How does one avoid being ripped off? First off, be aware and vigilant. Be assertive when dealing with management and know the scams and cons you're likely to encounter. This article covers the more blatant ones and listed complaint sites profile others.

To pull in quality people producers sometimes play up big names they've purportedly signed. A well-known actor, a respected director, can pull in experienced crew members, some willing to work below their standard rates. This is all well and good, if it were true. Such bait and switch tactics work well on investors, so why not use it on production personnel. And if unable to sign these people, there's a bevy of excuses waiting in the wings. By then crew members are committed to the picture based on this erroneous information.

Job listings can be misleading, especially when it comes to the credits and credentials of the principles. A producer may imply working on a feature when his actual title was associate producer. These little faux pas are reflective of management's integrity and character. Check out credits on IMDb.com as well as the credited films' websites. It is better to question early on than to face entanglements during production.

In the hiring process, a deal memo should be your number one priority, as it helps avoid problems down the road. It outlines your compensation, working duration, and your screen credits. At FilmContracts.net, there are online forms for such agreements. If you are unable to get a deal memo, restate the hiring conditions in an email to the hiring party and sent a cc copy to yourself. In this email, state that this is your understanding of the terms and if incorrect, please reply by return email. Hold this email in a special email file and use it as proof that this was your understanding as of that date. While such emails have limited legal standing, they do provide some leverage should problems occur.

In negotiating compensation, one should be aware of the "favored-nations" clause. Such a provision in the agreement guarantees that no other crew member on the picture (in the same job category) will obtain more advantageous terms. Such a cause ensures that you receive a fair deal compared to that of others.

A clause producers sometimes push is a run of show fee agreement. Such a contract locks you in and usually makes no allowance for additional shooting days. Thus, you may be hired to work a schedule of 18 days and actually end up working 22. That works out to a 22% reduction in your pay. A more equitable method is to assign a set rate for days worked beyond the scheduled shooting days.

If part of your duties requires purchasing production supplies, avoid out-of-pocket payments. Instead, get cash from the production manager. Getting repaid can be a hassle as reimbursements can be delayed for months and cause you undue hardship in the mean time. Also, make copies of the receipts and tabulations, as management can conveniently lose these items.

Crew members that bring their own tools and supplies to the shoot may qualify for a box rental or kit fee. This fee covers items such as ware and tear on tools, makeup supplies, script supervisor expenses, and expendables used during production. Replacing or replenishing these items can be a big expense and figures from previous productions can provide good leverage. Funds for these items are not relinquished easily and it's unfair for you to "contribute" to the production when other crew members receiving similar pay do not.

Working conditions is another major scam. Production companies promise reasonable hours, yet these are often stretched to fourteen, even sixteen hour days. This leaves little time for commuting and sleep. While there are many excuses given the reason can usually be traced back to bad planning. This abuse, especially when prevalent, soon wears down production personnel to where they neither function or performance properly. The way to rectify this abuse is to establish early on a reasonable turnaround time. Simply put, if you work late, you start later the next day.

Another scam is not adequately staffing crew positions. As such crew members are overworked, their hours extended, and the quality of their work suffers. Management's usual fix for this problem is to add interns, volunteers, or PA's. However, these people have limited craft experience and thus paid crew members are more involved in teaching than they are in doing their jobs. Management's ploy is to count heads rather than qualified workers. Adding this unskilled labor creates a numerous problems including lower production quality, safety issues and longer hours. While it saves management's money, it sets up a culture where the bottom line supersedes producing a quality film.

Messy bookkeeping is another way film crews are cheated out of rightful compensation. Whether done on purpose or through carelessness the result is the same; the crew member loses. Discrepancies are difficult to prove, especially when discovered weeks later. I would suggest keeping your own time sheet. In this way, you have a record of your work hours and a rebuttal against such abuse. Also, hold onto call sheets, as they are proof when you worked.

If you are paid in cash, you might be leery about the integrity of the production company. Without a paper trail, your employee rights could be in jeopardy. Rights to such things as deferred payments, workman's comp, and state disability. Paying in cash allows the producers to keep your efforts off the books. In addition, producers can cook the books the investors see and inflate production expenses. They also avoid paying state and federal employee benefits such as welfare and SDI. If the producers are hiding funds, then cash payments allow monies to move undetected. While cash payments seem beneficial to the employee, they could lead to problems down the road. When applying for unemployment, pay stubs show that you were employed and eligible to receive benefits. There are also the consequences of not reporting all your income to the IRS. Not issuing 1099's is another sign the company is a little flaky as there is no federal record of your employment.

On the same topic, producers have been known to put down crew member's work saying it's not up to par. Then they use this excuse to renege on or reduce promised wages. This ploy is usually done after the crew member's work is completed and the production has wrapped. The situation then becomes a take it or leave it stand-off, one that can only be settled in court. A crew deal memo has great value in such cases as does support from cast and other crew people. Document your complaint in writing and send it via return receipt registered mail. With the advent of videophones, some crew members query an appraisal of their work during production. Such footage provides additional proof of ones worth.

Vehicle use, parking, mileage is another area where production companies cut corners. Runners, buyers, and production assistants are the most abused on this issue. Running production errands in their own cars, these people are the least able to afford this additional expense. They are also the least assertive members of the crew and thus the easiest to scam. And in their quest to obtain experience and screen credits they will avoid making any waves.

On limited budget films, production companies avoid taking out liability and worker's compensation insurance. If the company has a shooting permit, then it's likely they have this insurance coverage. If not, being aware of the risks should you be injured or seriously maimed. Such knowledge may dictate how you accomplish your work. Stunts, lighting and set construction have high insurance premiums due to their higher injury rates. With so little protection, slow and cautious is your only defense.

Productions that are partially funded look for ways to get more money. One way is to convince crew members to defer part or all their salaries so the picture can be complete. They promise they will pay back deferred salaries out of the film's distribution deal (yet to be negotiated, of course.) Another ploy is to give points in the production in lieu of salary. These offers are bad, bad, bad ideas as the prospect of seeing any money is either nil or none. According to AMPPA, only 2% of non-studio films completed make any money for the producers. Taking such an offer is like betting on a plow horse to win the Kentucky Derby. The same goes for putting your own money into a struggling production. When you clear away the hype and the pressure to be a team player, it is still a bad idea.

This next scam happens often on student films and calling card films. These films are usually made for the expressed purpose of gaining entry into the industry. The ploy is to get people to work on the film for free with the promise of working on the group's other projects later on. However, when later comes about, the scammer has excuses for not honoring his commitment. The first filmmaker lucks out as he's got his ticket in. The others have to find other people to help with their projects. Sharing equipment also comes into play with the first filmmaker reneging on use of his stuff. A written agreement usually takes care of this scam.

Low budget films tend to get behind, both money wise and time wise. To take up the slack, management pressures the cast and crew by making unreasonable demands and deadlines. It could mean working faster and doing less coverage. It could also mean working through lunch and / or working late through a second meal break. Compensation for such extra effort is non-existent aside from the 'appreciative' thank you. In filmmaking you never catch up, you just lower expectations.

Occasionally, crew members are asked to do something that is illegal. Most are money-saving misdemeanors that can have a serious downside if caught. They include bogus non-profit status to obtain discounts, bogus wholesale permit to avoid paying sales tax, bogus production permits, and bogus insurance coverage. They could also include no safety officer for use of guns, explosions, or fire in a scene. Production companies have also been known to put up bogus no parking signs, block off traffic without authorization, and use locations without permission. Other violations include not getting product / literary clearance and unauthorized use of signage. To cover yourself in these situations, question the legality. If caught, pass the accountability up to the person making the request, such as the producer or production manager. Do not be thrown under the bus for bad decisions delegated by a superior.

Collecting your rightful compensation can be a long arduous task. Production companies have done everything from outright reneging on your pay to renegotiating a lower wage. Be ready for a multitude of delaying tactics and excuses. "We're waiting on a distribution deal." Or, "We're raising money for a feature that we'll be able to pay people considerably more." Another is an offer to up your screen credit in return for less money. Some will denigrate the work you have done or say that it was not authorized to lower their obligation.

What are your options? You can, of course, sue in small claims court and hopefully get full compensation that way. Such action requires documentation, time, filing fees and court time. You can also file a complaint with the Department of Labor, ESA Wage & Hour Division. Such a complaint usually stirs up other violations, some of which can result in severe penalties for the production company.

Another method is posting your grievance online at one of the many complaint sites. These would include BBBOnline.org, Complaints.com and Ripoffreport.com. Another site, Scambook.com, offers a resolution service. Accountants and lawyers use these sites to steer clients away from bad investments. Such postings help spread the word and if nothing else, shame the production company into paying you your rightful compensation.

There are, of course, multitudes of upstanding and honest production companies in this industry. These companies treat their crew members amicably, compensate them fairly, and pay wages in a timely manner. They also listen, communicate and are open to solving grievances. It's an enjoyable experience and crew members take considerable pride in being a part of the final product. No scams, no cons, just one happy family working together to produce a quality film. That's how it should be done.

The 7 Biggest Mistakes Most New Daycare Owners Make – And How to Avoid Them!

What does it take to be successful in child care?

Obviously, you should have a deep & passionate desire to take care of children, a huge amount of patience, and the ability to juggle several tasks at once (such as warming a bottle while helping toddlers with an art project).

It also helps if you have a separate space in your home, such as a finished basement, where you can run your child care business.

But as if that is not enough, there are many things that a successful home daycare owner needs to be good at besides caring for children. Honestly, it can be quite daunting.

Things like getting paid on time from parents, writing solid policies & contracts, marketing your business to new potential clients, obtaining the right insurance policy, understanding record-keeping and how it affects your taxes, and overall, just getting started in a manner that will optimize success.

To help you get started more successfully, here are seven of the biggest, costliest mistakes women make when starting their own home-based child care business, and how to avoid them.

BIG MISTAKE # 1: Not doing the proper research on the child care market in your town or city.

This is a crucial step that many new child care business owners miss, usually because they're not sure how to go about it. Or they may think that it's not really necessary to do the research, because they do not understand how it could impact them.

After all, it's just a small home-based business, right? Why do you need to do all that extra work up-front?

The goal here is not to spend weeks or months completing some huge market research project that you're not ever going to use.

I'm talking about spending a few hours over the next few days, calling around (or maybe visiting some other child care businesses) and asking key questions.

Let me give you an example of what I'm talking about. My neighbor Mary, who runs a child care business in her home, discovered a couple things about our local market that helped her create a more profitable business. The first thing was, our town has ½-day Kindergarten, not full-day. By talking to other Moms in our town, Mary found there was a need in our town for "before-and-after care", that is someone who could watch Kindergarteners & older kids before and after school. She structured her daycare to fill this need. All she had to do was make sure the buses were able to pick up & drop off these kids at her home, and she was able to start taking kids.

So what you want to uncover, when you do your upfront research, is a "pocket of unfulfilled need" in terms of child care. You do not need it to be a huge pocket, but something unique about your business that will bring you customers who have that need.

Other examples of this are:
– Offering second or third shift care if you have large companies in your town who employ people on evening or overnight shifts
– Offering bilingual care or special languages, such as sign language for babies
– Offering special meals (such as organic or vegetarian) if you live in a town where that would be considered desirable (like Boulder, Colorado or a similar college town)

Again, you are asking key questions and trying to uncover an unfulfilled need in your town or city. You can begin by calling your local Child Care Resource & Referral Agency (CCR & R), your local elementary schools, talking to neighbors and friends, and visiting other child care businesses in your town. You can even call other home child care businesses and talk to these women about what they are seeing in the market. Usually, women in child care help each other out by forming friendships and partnerships, so do not be intimidated.

By taking the time to do the research, you will gain a huge advantage by understanding your market and how you can be successful within that market.

BIG MISTAKE # 2: Not getting the right liability protection for you and your business.

If you want to be able to sleep easy at night and not worry about getting sued, you'll need to be properly covered. You need the real scoop on what type of insurance to buy, and how much it should cost, so you do not overpay.

Many new child care business owners make the mistake of thinking that their homeowner's policy is enough to cover them if there's a problem. But the truth is, that policy usually does not provide enough protection, nor the right kind of protection you need for special situations that a daycare owner can face.
An example of this situation would be if your house had a power outage, and you had to close temporarily due to the loss of electricity. If you had a business liability policy with coverage for "business income interruption", you would be covered by your policy and you would still get that income.

Likewise, if you were sued by a parent for some situation, your policy would cover you in most cases.
Surprisingly, a business liability policy for a home daycare is not that expensive, and is well worth the investment (in my opinion). These type of policies usually cost $ 30 to $ 40 per month. Is that worth a good night's sleep?

BIG MISTAKE # 3: Not charging the right fees.

Do you know how to find out what other child care homes and centers are charging? Most new daycare owners literally leave money on the table by not setting their rates properly. You'll get short-changed by charging too little, and if you charge too much, you will not get any clients!

So how do you go about figuring out what to charge? This is a similar process as doing the upfront research in your town … it's simply a matter of making some phone calls or visits to other child care businesses and setting you prices appropriately.

Many new family daycare owners charge the same weekly rate for each child, regardless of the child's age. However, if you talk to centers in your town, most of them charge the highest rate for infants, and the lowest rate for older kids (pre-K and older). Many parents are used to this type of pricing structure.
So depending on the ages of kids that you can accept, if you charge a bit more for infants and young toddlers, you may find that your income will be a bit higher than a flat-rate for all ages. You'll have to look at your individual scenario and choose what's best for you.

For example, let's say that according to your state, and the ages of your own children, you can accept 1 infant, 3 young toddlers (15-24 months), and 2 older toddlers (3-4 year olds). If you charge $ 120 per week as a flat rate, you would have a weekly income of $ 720.

If, however, you charged a bit more for infants ($ 135 / week), and young toddlers ($ 125 / week) and less for older toddlers ($ 115 / week), your weekly income with this scenario would be $ 740. That amounts to an extra $ 80 per month, or an extra $ 1,040 per year.

Small adjustments like these in your price, if it makes sense based on your local area, can make a difference in your take-home profits at the end of the day.

BIG MISTAKE # 4: Not covering yourself with a proper daycare policy handbook and contract.
Okay, this is a really big one. You need to have a well-written contract for your parents, and you need a comprehensive policy handbook. If you use your contract and policy handbook properly, you can literally save yourself thousands of dollars of lost income (and countless hours of headaches!).

So what's the difference between a contract and a policy?

A contract is a binding legal agreement between two people. If you agree to care for a child and the child's parent agrees to pay you for that care, you've made a verbal contract. If you put the contract in writing, it becomes a written contract.

There are 5 key elements of a child care contract: the names of the parties, the hours of operation, the termination procedure (that is, how either party may terminate the agreement), terms of payment (including rates, due dates, and extra fees), and the signatures of the parties. Be specific and clear with your wording.

A policy handbook is longer and more detailed than a contract. It should contain all the rules that state how you will care for the children, how you'll handle specific kinds of situations, and how you run your business. For example, you should include your vacation & sick day policies, how you handle behavior issues & discipline, and how the children will be fed.

It's a good idea to require a signature page at the end of your policy handbook, where the parent agrees that he or she has read the entire handbook and agrees to abide by the policies you've laid out.
You need to have both documents in writing. (If you need actual examples that you can copy & edit to fit your business, they are provided in my Daycare Success System … more about that later).

BIG MISTAKE # 5: Not using the best ways to market your business to future customers.

Let's face it, you may not be a marketing and advertising whiz, but you need easy and low-cost ways to get the word out and bring in new customers.

We've all heard that the best advertising is word-of-mouth. That's after you've gotten started and your clients recommend you to their friends and neighbors.

But what about when you first open your doors, and you have no proven track record?

Fortunately, there are lots of ways you can get the word out about your new child care business, and most of them will not cost you much money. Here are 4 marketing ideas to get you started.

Marketing Tip # 1: Register with the Child Care Resource and Referral (CCR & R) Office in Your Area.
This is the very first thing you should do to get your name out there, and it should be done prior to opening your doors. Website is located The at: Www.childcareaware.org

Then enter your ZIP Code in the search field and you will receive the contact information for your nearest CCR & R office. You can also call them toll-free at (800) 424-2246.

As of December 2007, in order to be registered with most CCR & R's, you do not need to be state-licensed or certified. However, they may have special requirements to be listed, based on your state.
For example, in Ohio, they request that solo family daycare providers have a maximum of 6 children at any time, and no more than 3 children under the age of 2. If there is more than one caregiver in the home / facility, the numbers can be higher. These rules vary by state, so be sure to call your local CCR & R branch to confirm your rules.

Once you register with your CCR & R, they will provide your contact information, along with any special information pertaining to your daycare, to parents seeking child care …. for free!

Marketing Tip # 2: Contact All Elementary Schools on Your Bus Line and / or in Your Community.
Most schools maintain a list of Childcare Providers, which they provide to parents upon request. Ask to have your name and phone number added to their Provider list.

Marketing Tip # 3: Verbally Communicate to Everyone You Know.
Tell everyone you know that you are providing child care and ask them if they know anyone who is seeking childcare in your area. Make an announcement at your church, and at all other groups to which you belong. If you do not belong to any community groups, join some! You're an entrepreneur now, it's time to start networking!
This may be your strongest source for enrolling daycare children. Most parents prefer to leave their children with a provider that was recommended by a friend, neighbor, coworker or family member.

Marketing Tip # 4: Place Announcements or Small Ads in Community Newsletters.
Ask every organization you know and / or belong to such as a Church, Play Group, or Community Group, if you can place an announcement in their Newsletter.
If you know a community group, church, and / or business professional that mails out a newsletter, ask them to advertise your business for the local residents on their database. In your advertisement, focus on the unique features of your business and the benefits that children and parents will receive from being enrolled with you.

Remember, this is just the tip of the iceberg. When you learn these easy and inexpensive (or free) methods to bring in new leads, you'll have a full and profitable daycare center and you'll establish an ongoing relationship with your parent-clients that will have them raving about you to their friends and family!

Now let's get back to the 7 Biggest Mistakes and how you can avoid them.

BIG MISTAKE # 6: Not utilizing the tons of free resources in your local area, including sources of grant money.

Many new daycare or preschool owners do not know about the local resources available to them, and how to navigate the waters of state, regional, and local government agencies.

With so many organizations and websites out there, it can be really tough to figure out where to go and who to ask, if you do not know where to begin.

The best place to start is with your state. Every state in the US has an agency within their state government that sets the rules for family child care providers. This agency is usually called something like the Department of Child & Family Services (DCFS), or the Department of Job & Family Services (DJFS) and they all have websites.

(If you are in Canada or another country, you probably have a similar office in your government).
To your go The, Simply state's website (color : such color : as Http://www.Illinois.gov ) and look for the Appropriate department, or type "child care" in the Suche box.

The website should contain phone numbers for the Child Care contact person in your state. Call them on the phone and inquire about your state's rules and what they recommend for people who are just getting started in family child care.

Most counties also have a child care office that helps people at the county level. Ask your state contact person how to find help for your specific county. Then, contact your county rep and ask the following questions (these are also good questions to ask your state rep):

– What do you need to know that's specific rules or regulations for your county?
– What training are you required to take before you open your doors?
– What kind of ongoing training / learning is required?
– Do they have any recommendations on insurance providers for child care owners in your county?
– What resources do they have to help you get started?
– Do they know about any sources for grants or low-interest start-up loans?
– Are there local or county support groups that meet to discuss child care issues?

There may be other questions you'll think of, too. Do not be intimidated. You have the right to get the best information to get started, and you owe it to yourself to start out as successfully and as knowledgably as possible.

BIG MISTAKE # 7: Not getting licensed or certified by your state.

Getting licensed or certified with your state can be a bit of work, but it's probably easier than you think. Usually, to get licensed you are required to take a certain amount of training (often very low-cost or even free) and your home will be inspected once or twice a year by a state inspector to ensure that guidelines are being met.

There are lots of reasons why you should consider it … the top reason being that you can charge higher rates!

Here are some of the other benefits you will gain by being licensed or certified with your state:
– You will be proud to know you are providing the highest quality of care (and you can communicate this to others).
– Potential parents will be more likely to choose you, so you will not have to spend as much on marketing and advertising
– Schools and other businesses will be more likely to recommend you.
– You may be eligible for grants or low-interest loans to expand your daycare or improve it with a new outdoor play area, etc.
– You will stand out from the crowd as a superior business.

You will have the highest chance for success if you strive to be the best at what you do.

Good luck!

How to Start a Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Business

By now you must be aware of the many compelling reasons why a non-emergency medical transportation business offers entrepreneurs such a great business model. With the growth in the health care industry and the explosion of baby boomer retirees, this market is big and set to get even bigger still.

In this article we look at how to start a non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) business. Learn about some of the steps that are involved and some of the aspects of this business that you will have to consider.

Franchise or Independent Operator?

There are now several players offering non-emergency medical transportation franchises. Entrepreneurs benefit with the franchise model as they can operate under an established brand and get advice and training to get started and run a business. However, with the franchise fees that must be paid initially and on an ongoing basis, the upside potential for profit is reduced. If you do your homework, you will find that this business is not that difficult and it is possible to start up and thrive independently.

Choosing the Right Area

Give some thought to the demographics of the area where you are setting up your business. Look for statistics that prove that there are a good number of elderly, disabled or Medicaid citizens living nearby. Compile a list of hospitals, dialysis centers, retirement homes, assisted living centers and other relevant operations. You could even make initial contact with some of these organizations and find out about the transportation solutions that they currently have in place.

Research the Competition

Identify all of the major competitors that you will have in your area and evaluate them in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. You may decide to incorporate parts of their business model into your own business and reject other parts. Learn as much as you can about them by reading their websites and calling their offices to ask questions. You can even spend some time following around some of their vans in order to understand how they work and to find out exactly who their customers are.

Getting Started – Licenses and Permits

Regulations and requirements for medical transportation businesses vary from state to state so you should make enquiries at the local level to find out what your obligations are.

As you are in the business of transporting paying customers from one place to another you will need some kind of permit, just as a taxi driver does. Your application for this kind of license will be handled by transportation authorities at the state or local level. Due to the nature of this work, some states will also require businesses in this industry to be registered with local health authorities.

There may also be other paperwork that needs to be done such as registering your business name, getting a business license (possibly more if you serve multiple counties) and zoning considerations if you run a home business.

Vehicles and Equipment

It is common for medical transportation services to purchase regular vans, either new or used, and then have them fitted out to suit special needs clients. Business owners typically start out with one vehicle and gradually add to their fleet as their business grows.

The best vans for an ambulette have a high raised roof and doorways. Access is usually on the side of the vehicle but can also be at the rear.

Some operators still use manual lifts to help them get wheelchair passengers into and out of their vans. However, you should be able to provide a faster, more professional service if you have a modern hydraulic lift installed.

Once inside the van, wheelchairs can be fastened to various securing devices so that they do not move around during transit. Vehicles also require customized seatbelts for wheelchair bound passengers. You can also improve the quality of your service if you have some comforts like TV and air conditioning.

A decent sized van that is properly kitted out should be able to transport four wheelchair bound passengers at a time as well as have extra seats available for caregivers. Depending on your clients, you may also need a space in your van that will allow you to fit in a passenger that is confined to a stretcher.

Insurance Policies

To protect yourself from unforeseen events you will need to purchase a variety of insurance policies. A general liability insurance policy will ensure that you are covered in situations where your customers are injured or suffer losses while they are in your care. You will also need regular automotive insurance to protect yourself in cases where your vehicles are damaged, stolen or involved in traffic accidents.

Payment Options

Decide on how you want to collect payment for your services. You may have to invoice medical institutions on a monthly basis or you may need to process credit card payments for individual clients. If you service large clients like Medicaid then it may be as simple as receiving a check in the mail each month. Talk to some prospective clients and look at what their needs are. Find out what payment options your competitors are offering.

Service Hours

Give some thought to your operating hours. The best ambulette services in the market usually offer weekday service from early morning to late at night with decent hours on Saturdays too. As a sole operator you will be limited in the hours that you can take on. As you expand into a multi-driver operation you will be able to offer more flexible scheduling to clients.

Staffing Requirements

If you start out doing all the driving while also managing your business you will quickly get burnt out. In order to grow you need to step back and hire some drivers so that you can move into a purely management and marketing orientated role.

Staff should have a drivers license that allows them to take passengers and they may also be subject to certain standards or requirements at the local level. No matter what you should make sure that your staff are trained on how to do the practical side of the job. They need to know how to assist passengers and their caregivers as they get in and out of vehicles. They should also be instructed to smile and make pleasant conversation if the opportunity arises so that they help your brand to gain a positive reputation.

Marketing

There are many different ways to market a non-emergency medical transportation business. For some ideas on markets that you can target read our article on Medical Transportation Business Opportunities.

Initially you will have to go out and meet prospective clients and possibly even bid to try and win contracts. However, if your team are doing a good job then you will find that eventually business will come directly to you through word of mouth and referrals.

You can of course improve your chances of getting calls from private paying clients if you do a little advertising. A website that comes up in the search results when people search for ambulette services in your area can really help. A small Yellow Pages listing will also almost certainly be worth the cost. You can pretty much try any method that other local service businesses are using to promote themselves. Vehicle advertising is great for exposure and flyers, postcards or door hangers may work as well.

Health – Entering a Hospital

A hospital is driven by the goal of saving lives. It may range in size and service from a small unit that provides general care and low-risk treatments to large, specialized centers offering dramatic and experimental therapies. You may be limited in your choice of a hospital by factors beyond your control, including insurance coverage, your physician's hospital affiliation, and type of care available.

Before entering a hospital, you should be aware of possible dangers. Well-known hospital hazards are unnecessary operations, unexpected drug reactions, harmful or even fatal blunders, and hospital borne infections. The Institute of Medicine recently identified three areas in which the health-care system, in general, and hospitals and their staff, in specific, often fall short: the use of unnecessary or inappropriate care (too many antibiotics), underused of effective care ( too few immunizations or Pap smears), and shortcomings in technical and interpersonal skills. The greatest single danger that a hospital presents is infection, which is largely preventable.

What can lay people do to ensure proper and safe care while in the hospital? The following guidelines should be considered.

If you have a choice of hospitals, inquire about their accreditation status. Hospitals are subject to inspection to make sure they are in compliance with federal standards. Policies implemented in 1989 require the release of information on request to state health departments regarding a hospital's mortality rate, its accreditation status, and its major deficiencies.

Before checking into a hospital, you need to decide on your accommodations. Do you want to pay extra for a single room? Do you want a nonsmoker for a roommate? Do you need a special diet? Do you need a place to store refrigerated medicine? If someone will be staying with you, will they need a cot? You should try to avoid going in on a weekend when few procedures are done. When you get to your room, you should speak up immediately if it's unacceptable.

You need to be familiar with your rights as a patient. Hospitals should provide an information booklet that includes a Patient's Bill of Rights. The booklet will inform you that you have the right to considerate and respectful care; information about tests, drugs, and procedures; dignity; courtesy; respect; and the opportunity to make decisions, including when to leave the hospital.

You should make informed decisions. Before authorizing any procedure, patients must be informed about their medical condition, treatment options, expected risks, prognosis of the condition, and the name of the person in charge of treatment. This is called informed consent. The only times hospitals are not required to obtain informed consent are cases involving life-threatening emergencies, unconscious patients when no relatives are present, and / or compliance with the law or a court order, such as examination of sexually transmitted diseases. If you are asked to sign a consent form, you should read it first. If you want more information, you should ask before signing. If you are skeptical, you have the right to post pone the procedure and discuss it with your doctor.

Authorization of a medical procedure may be given nonverbally, such as an appearance at a doctor's office for treatment, cooperation during the administration of tests, or failure to object when consent can be easily refused. This is called implied consent.

You need to weigh the risks of drug therapy, x-ray examinations, and laboratory tests with their expected benefits. When tests or treatments are ordered, you should ask about their purpose, possible risks, and possible actions if a test finds something wrong. For example, the injection or ingestion of x-ray dyes makes body structures more visible and greatly facilitates a physician's ability to make a correct diagnosis. However, dyes can cause an allergic reaction that ranges from a skin rash to circulatory collapse and death. Finally, you should inquire about prescribed drugs. You should avoid taking drugs, including pain and sleeping medication, unless you feel confident of their benefits and are aware of their hazards.

When scheduled for surgery, prepare for anesthesia. In rare cases general anesthesia can cause brain damage and death. One cause of such catastrophes is vomiting while unconscious. To reduce the risk, refuse any food or drink that may be offered by mistake in the 8 hours before surgery.

You need to know who is in charge of your care and record the office number and when you can expect a visit. If your doctor is transferring your care to someone else, you need to know who it is. If your doctor is not available and you do not know what is happening, you can ask for the nurse in charge of your case.

You should keep a daily log of procedures, medicines, and doctor visits. When you get your bill, compare each item with your written record. Insist on an itemized bill.

You should stay active within the limits of your medical problem. Many body functions begin to suffer from just a few days' inactivity. Moving about, walking, bending, and contracting muscles help to clear body fluids, reduce the risk of infections (especially in the lungs), and cope with the stress of hospital procedures that add to the depression and malaise of hospitalization.

You should be alert. Throughout your stay, you can keep asking questions until you know all you need to know. According to some experts, the biggest improvement in health care has not been technological advances; it's been patients asking questions. The more questions, the fewer mistakes and the more power patients have in the doctor-patient relationship

Selecting a Health-Care Professional

Choosing a physician for your general health care is an important and necessary duty. Only physicians are discussed here, but this information applies to the selection of all health-care practitioners. You must select one who will listen carefully to your problems and diagnose them accurately. At the same time, you need a physician who can move you through the modern medical maze of technology and specialists.

For most people, good health care means having a primary-care physician, a professional who assists you as you assume responsibility for your overall health and directs you when specialized care is necessary. Your primary-care physician should be familiar with your complete medical history, as well as your home, work, and other environments. You are better understood in periods of sickness when your physician also sees you during periods of wellness. Finding a primary-care physician, however, may be difficult. Of the 700,000 doctors in the United States, only 200,000 (less than 30%) are in primary care.

For adults, primary-care physicians are usually family practitioners, once called "general practitioners," and internists, specialists in internal medicine. Pediatricians often serve as primary-care physicians for children. Obstetricians and gynecologists, who specialize in pregnancy, childbirth, and diseases of the female reproductive system, often serve as primary-care physicians to women. In some places, general surgeons may offer primary care in addition to the surgery they perform. Some osteopathic physicians also practice family medicine. A doctor of osteopathy (DO) emphasizes manipulation of the body to treat symptoms.

There are several sources of information for obtaining the names of physicians in your area:

Local and state medical societies can identify doctors by specialty and tell you a doctor's basic credentials. You should check on the doctor's hospital affiliation and make sure the hospital is accredited. Another sign of standing is the type of societies in which the doctor has membership. The qualifications of a surgeon, for example, are enhanced by a fellowship in the American College of Surgeons (abbreviated as FACS after the surgeon's name). An internist fellowship in the American College of Physicians is abbreviated F ACP. Membership in academies indicates a physician's special interest.

All physicians board certified in the United States are listed in the American Medical Directory published by the American Medical Association and available in larger libraries. About one fourth of the practicing physicians in the United States are not board certified. This may mean that a doctor failed the exam, never completed training, or is incompetent. It could also mean that the doctor simply has not taken the exam.

The American Board of Medical Specialists (ABMS) publishes the Compendium of Certified Medical Specialties, which lists physicians by name, specialty, and location. Pharmacists can be asked to recommend names.

Hospitals can give you names of staff physicians who also practice in the community.

Local medical schools can identify faculty members who also practice privately.

Many colleges and universities have health centers that keep a list of physicians for student referral.

Friends may have recommendations, but you should allow for the possibility that your opinion of the doctor may be different.

Once you have identified a leading candidate, you can make an appointment. You need to check with the office staff about office hours, availability of emergency care at night or on weekends, backup doctors, procedures when you call for advice, hospital affiliation, and payment and insurance procedure.You should schedule your first visit while in good health. Once you have seen your doctor, reflect on the following: Did the doctor seem to be listening to you? Were your questions answered? Was a medical history taken? Were you informed of possible side effects of drugs or tests? Was respect shown for your need of privacy? Was the doctor open to the suggestion of a second opinion?

Insurance Agents Name Choices – Insurance Specialist, Financial Planner, or Life Advisor?

Are you one of the plain insurance agents? Agents often prefer to upgrade their title as an insurance specialist or financial advisor on their business card. Names like life advisor reflect positive experience and knowledge. Which of these different terms distinguishes you from being just one of the insurance agents? Here are 101 top choices to pick from.

There is a lot more to a name then may realize. Calling yourself an agent or sales agent makes you sound run of the mill. It also projects the sound of a salesman trying to sell you something. Few people enjoy feeling a person is selling them anything, it stinks of pressure. This is why in this list of different terms you will see how high words like specialist, expert, and professional rank. The prospect gets a completely new perspective, just by the title you give yourself! Prospects closely take notice when an agent jointly works with them in reaching a decision on what is the best plan of action. Prospective clients want to feel like they are part of the decision process.

Important internet search tip: to get an accurate count use quote marks around your term, "insurance specialist" will only give you that term in that exact order. Without the quotes you would also get all instances of people searching terms such as specialist insurance, specialist in writing insurance claims, specialist in automobile insurance sales, etc.

To give this article value, in front of each of the insurance agents distinctions is the number of current Google listings. This way you can easily see how often internet views "insurance agent" look-up terms like specialist, planner, representative, and. advisor. Please remember the Google count figures often change daily.

1. 10,600,000 = financial advisor

2. 6,690,000 = insurance agent

3. 4,280,000 = financial planner

4. 2,120,000 = investment advisor

5. 1,780,000 = insurance agents brokers

6. 1,600,000 = investment adviser

7. 999,000 = insurance guide

8. 735,000 = insurance specialist

9. 638,000 = financial expert

10. 604,000 = financial professional

11. 590,000 = financial specialist

12. 513,000 = life pro

13. 433,000 = insurance professional

14. 431,000 = health insurance agent

15. 322,000 = insurance expert

16. 271,500 = insurance salesman

17. 269,000 = life professional

18. 268,000 = life insurance agent

19. 253,000 = insurance consultant

20. 252,000 = insurance advisor

21. 244,000 = insurance sales representative

22. 219,000 = insurance manager

23. 218,000 = estate advisor

24. 217,000 = insurance executive

25. 189,000 = estate planner

26. 186,000 = independent insurance sale

27. 179,000 = insurance sales agent

28. 155,000 = insurance seller

29. 130,000 = insurance producer

30. 126,000 = investment representative

29. 120,000 = insurance authority

30. 119,000 = insurance representative

31. 112,000 = life agent

32. 107,000 = life insurance specialist

32. 104,000 = life specialist

33. 102,000 = insurance adviser

34. 89,900 = insurance sales manager

35. 86,200 = licensed insurance agent

36. 85,200 = insurance manager

37. 71,000 = health agent

38. 66,600 = insurance pro

39. 65,100 = insurance sales rep

40. 60,000 = insurance designer

41. 59,400 = insurance sales person

42. 55,600 = life consultant

43. 54,500 = group agent

44. 52,200 = ins agent

45. 50,100 = estate adviser

46. ​​50,000 = insurance pros

47. 46,800 = insurance counselor

48. 43,800 = financial pro

49. 43,400 = insurance salesperson

50. 40,200 = insurance sales specialist

51. 37,700 = life producer

52. 37,000 = insurance sales executive

53. 35,400 = independent insurance brokers

54. 34,700 = long term care professional

55. 34,500 = financial planning advisor

56. 33,900 = medical insurance specialist

57. 31,300 = health insurance professional

58. 29,300 = life insurance expert

59. 29,000 = insurance rep

60. 28,900 = financial planning advisor

61. 27,500 = health insurance specialist

62. 26,000 = health insurance advisor

63. 25,500 = independent insurance professional

64. 24,700 = employee benefits specialist

65. 24,000 = life advisor

66. 22,900 = life insurance advisor

67. 21,800 = life insurance sales specialist

68. 19,900 = life insurance professional

69. 19,300 = insurance producer

70. 19,200 = licensed financial planner

71. 16,200 = health insurance producer

72. 14,900 = insurance sales consultant

73. 14,000 = term life insurance broker

74. 12,800 = long term care specialist

75. 12,700 = annuity specialist

76. 12,500 = estate planning specialist

77. 12,200 = insurance marketer

78. 11,950 = life insurance representative

79. 11,900 = insurance planner

80. 10,600 = insurance sales professional

81. 10,400 = life insurance advisor

82. 10,200 = insurance writer

83. 9,650 = insurance recruiter

84. 9,480 = financial planning advisor

85. 9,030 = estate planning advisor

86. 8,570 = annuity broker

87. 7,520 = insurance general manager

88. 7,070 = insurance trainee

89. 6,800 = long term care insurance specialist

90. 6,670 = term life insurance agent

91. 6,440 = long term care insurance agent

92. 5,870 = licensed life agent

93. 5,300 = financial insurance agent

94. 5,270 = annuity agent

95. 5,080 = ins professional

96. 5,030 = medical insurance professional

97. 5,010 = disability insurance agent

98. 4,990 = employee benefits professional

99. 4,430 = mortgage insurance agent

100. 4,200 = disability insurance specialist

101. 3,900 = long term care agent

For your own sake, never tell prospective clients that you are one of 1,500,000 insurance agents licensed to sell life, health, annuities, and financial policies. The term insurance specialist or insurance professional immediately makes your prospect more confident of your abilities. However, please do not use the overused and abused terms of financial planner or estate planner unless you actually are qualified to be one.

If case, you are interested, here are more titles with over 1,000 Google entry occurrences that did not make the top 101 list. They include group health professional, ins specialist, insurance marketing representative, health insurance adviser, ins representative, term life insurance specialist, mortgage life insurance agent, insurance marketing specialist, disability insurance broker, life ins agent, term life agent, senior market specialist, life investment adviser, MDRT insurance agent, and insurance saleswoman.

Should you want to get more attention on major search engines like Google, Yahoo, and Ask, here are some tips. On the front of your website entry page, use the title and first line to put a more descriptive term about the services you provide. Rather than announcing "insurance agent for many products", try this, "medical insurance professional and disability insurance specialist." Both these titles only have about 5,000 competing entries, which could include 3,500 to 4,000 weak ones each. Now it depends on following the advice given, and internet search engine skills you possess. An internet searcher might now find you in the top 100 listings for each of the terms! On an "insurance agent" search, with well over 6,000,000 listings, it might take a 24/7 week to find you listed toward the end of the heap.

The Structure of the Investment Process

The main financial market in the US is the securities market. This is made up of stock, bond, and options markets. There are similar markets in most other major economies throughout the world. The common feature is that the price of an investment vehicle at any time is from an equilibrium between the forces of supply and demand. As new information about the returns and risk becomes available, changes in supply and demand could result in a new market price. The financial markets streamline the process of bringing the suppliers and demanders of funds together, and allow transactions to be made quickly and at a fair price. Suppliers of funds can transfer their resources to the demanders through financial institutions, financial markets, or in direct transactions. Financial institutions can participate in financial markets as either suppliers or demanders.

Suppliers & Demanders of Funds

Individuals, business, and government are key players in the investment process. Each one can be a supplier or demander of funds. In order for the economy to grow and prosper, funds need to be available to qualified individuals, business, and government. If individuals decided to hoard their extra funds instead of putting them in financial institutions or investing them in financial markets, then the individuals, business, and government in need of the funds would have a much harder time obtaining them. If this happened, consumer purchases, business expansion, and government spending would decline, and economic activity would slow.

Individuals- The individual's role in the investment process is significant. They often demand funds in the form of loans to finance the acquisition of property-mostly automobiles, houses, and education. Even though their demand for funds is great, as a group, individuals are net suppliers of funds: meaning they put more funds into the financial system than they take out.

Business- Businesses usually require large sums of money to support operations. Business has both long and short term financial needs. They issue a variety of debt and equity securities to finance these needs. When they have excess cash they also supply funds. Overall, businesses in general are net demanders of funds.

Government – Federal, state, and local levels of government need vast sums of money to help finance long term projects to keep the government running and for the construction of public facilities. Sometimes, governments supply funds by making short term investments to earn a positive return on funds not being used at the time. Government is a net demander of funds. The government's financial activities significantly affect the behavior of financial institutions and financial markets.

Types of Investors

Individual investors manage their own personal funds to achieve financial goals. They usually concentrate on earning a return on excess funds, building a source of retirement income, and providing security for their families. For individuals who lack time and / or expertise to make investment decisions for themselves often employ institutional investors-professionals who are paid to manage other people's money. The professionals trade large amounts of securities for individuals, businesses, and governments. Institutional investors include banks, life insurance companies, mutual funds, and pension funds.

How Much Does a Surety Bond Cost?

We must first understand what a surety bond does as well as the factors that are involved that will determine the rate as well as obtaining a surety bond approval. The surety company will evaluate your credit, experience, and financials. The process is very similar to apply for a business loan. Rates vary on a multitude of conditions such as which state is it for, what type of surety bond is needed, what is the financial outlook for the company or individual, how much experience does the business have and of course, which surety company is writing it.

Most companies are looking for a credit score above a 670 with no public records, collections, or slow pays. They also review your business financials to make sure that your company has a positive net income and worth. The surety company requires that your financial equity be at least five times the bond amount. Therefore, if you are applying for a $ 50,000 Surety bond the surety is looking for a net worth above $ 200,000. Keep in mind this is different for each bond type and state because some types of bonds have a higher loss ratio than other types of bonds. Remember that you are indemnifying the surety so the surety wants to make sure you are able to pay a claim if one occurs. If you meet these requirements and the type of surety bond is not considered hazardous such as a financial guarantee than you should be able to qualify for a preferred rate of 1% to 3% of the surety bond amount. Keep in mind that each surety has a minimum premium for a bond, which is usually $ 150.00 to $ 250.00, but you only run into these scenarios if your bond amount is under $ 25,000. So using a $ 25,000 surety bond as an example and the rate was at a 3% the cost would be $ 750.00.

Unfortunately, not every person or company can meet the surety requirements for preferred rates or even qualify for bonding, especially with the surety bond market tightening due to an influx of claims. Many Surety Companies will require collateral or simply decline your submission if you can not qualify. Fortunately, there are still programs that will not decline your bond due to credit or other conditions they will just charge a higher rate.

Here is how is how it works if your business does not qualify for normal bonding the rate can be anywhere between 4% to 25% rate this is only for License and permit bonds. So if you where applying for a $ 100,000 Surety bond and your credit, financials or experience do not meet the surety companies requirements instead of declining you the rate will be higher for an example if you where approved at a 5% rate the cost would be $ 5,000.00 with no collateral. You may say to yourself well I would rather post the money with the state instead of paying a little more for my surety bond, you can of course do that but keep this in mind the state will not release your collateral until the statue of limitations is up. Therefore, after your bond is no longer needed or you are no longer in business the state will not release the collateral for several years.

Gastroenterology Medical Coding – Upper GI Procedures

Gastroenterology is a medical specialty that deals with the digestive system and its disorders. Gastroenterologists use a number of diagnostic procedures to accurately identify the patient's medical condition and prescribe treatment. Coding for gastroenterology involves accurate coding of the various procedures and services offered by the physician. Reimbursement is offered for procedures provided in in-office, in-facility, hospital outpatient and ASC facility settings. Payment policies vary with individual payers and therefore these should be verified before providing treatment to identify limitations if any, on diagnosis, site of service or coding requirements.

Common Gastroenterology Procedures

• ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) – this procedure combines the use of X-rays and endoscope. It is used to identify disorders such as gallstones, tumors, cysts, blockages and narrowing in the ducts.

• Sphincterotomy – to treat abnormalities diagnosed during an ERCP

• EUS (endoscopic ultrasound) – ultrasound of the pancreas, transduodenal or transgastric

• Sigmoidoscopy – enables the physician to view the lower end of the colon.

• Gastroscopy – this helps to examine the lining of the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum using an endoscope.

• Colonoscopy – is utilized by physicians to have a direct view of the whole of the large bowel or colon.

Upper Gastrointestinal Procedures and Codes

Upper gastrointestinal procedures include endoscopic and esophagoscopic procedures. These help the physician to view the interior of the upper GI tract including the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. When billing for Upper GI procedures, you have to verify payer conditions for covering the procedure. The services are usually covered when medical conditions such as esophageal disease, anemia, gastric ulcer, Celiac disease, persistent upper abdominal symptoms, and involuntary weight loss have been diagnosed.

• 43200 Diagnostic esophagoscopy

• 43202 Esophagoscopy with biopsy

• 43215 Esophagoscopy with foreign body removal

• 43216 Esophagoscopy with electrocautery removal of tumor or polyp

• 43217 Esophagoscopy with snare removal of tumor or polyp

• 43220 Esophagoscopy with dilation

• 43227 Esophagoscopy with control of bleeding

• 43232 Esophagoscopy, rigid or flexible; with transendoscopic ultrasoundguided intramural or transmural fine needle aspiration / biopsy (s)

• 43234 EGD – simple primary examination

• 43235 (dagger) EGD – diagnostic

• 43238 Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with transendoscopic ultrasoundguided intramural or transmural fine needle aspiration / biopsy (s) esophagus (includes endoscopic ultrasound examination limited to the esophagus)

• 43239 (dagger) EGD with biopsy

• 43241 EGD with transendoscopic catheter or tube placement

• 43242 Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with transendoscopic ultrasoundguided intramural or transmural fine needle aspiration / biopsy (s) (includes endoscopic ultrasound examination of the esophagus, stomach, and either the duodenum and / or jejunum as appropriate)

• 43246 EGD with PEG tube placement

• 43247 EGD with foreign body removal

• 43250 EGD with electrocautery removal of tumor or polyp

• 43251 EGD with snare removal of tumor or polyp

• 43255 EGD with control of bleeding

Certain codes 43200, 43202, 43234, 43235 and 43239 require prior authorization with some payers, and this has to be verified beforehand.

Some Important Considerations

A comprehensive endoscopic evaluation of the upper GI tract has to be reported with the code 43235. This usually involves a detailed view of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum and a thorough examination of the duodenal bulb. Physicians should use code 43239 to report EGD (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy) with biopsy. An EGD that is provided just as a primary examination and does not include "comprehensive" components can be reported with the code 43234. Lesser services such as esophagoscopy and esophagoscopy with biopsy should be reported only using their specific codes, 43200 and 43202 respectively. Physicians should avoid the practice of adding modifier -52 to 43239 to signify these reduced services, because this usually results in pointless delays or even denials of payment. When reporting biopsies and procedures for removing foreign bodies, physicians should take care to choose the code that clearly specifies these.

In cases where more than one procedure is carried out during a single visit, physicians should ensure whether these come under the multiple endoscopy payment rules. Here, Medicare as well as most private payers will reimburse the full value of the highest-valued procedure, along with difference between the value of the remaining procedure and the base endoscopic procedure. Modifier -51 has to be used along with the lesser-valued procedure.